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Full text of "Hortus Europae americanus, or, A collection of 85 curious trees and shrubs ?the produce of North America, adapted to the climates and soils of Great?Britain, Ireland, and most parts of Europe, &c together with their blossoms, fruits and seeds, observations on their culture, growth, constitution and virtues, with directions how to collect, pack up and secure them in their passage /by Mark Catesby."



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HORTUS EUROPE AMERICANUS 




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O R 



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A 






Collection of 8 c Curious Trees and Shrubs 




9 



The 



Produce 



of 



N 




RTH 



AM 







A 



y 



ADAPTED 



T O 



The 



Climates 



Ireland 



and 



Soils 



of 



Great-Britain 



j 



? 



and 



moif 



Parts of Europe 



? 



&c 




TOGETHER 






WITH 



Their Blossoms, Fruits and Se 



e d s j 






Observations on their Culture, Growth, Constitution and Virtues 



WITH 



DIRECTIONS how to collect, pack up, and secure them in their Passage 



Adorn'd with 




FIGURES on 17 C O P PER-PL A TE S, large Imperial Quarto. 



By 



MA 







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Y 



9 



F. R. 




V 




■*• 



i 



LONDON: 

I 7<. 



Printed for J. Milxa n, near Whitehall. M DCC LXVIL Price coWd al.a s. . 






rl 







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Y 





Y 



M 



Of Handford, Dorfetfhire, EsquTre 



9 





1 



The 



following 



T 





AT 






* 



Written upon that Branch of Natural Science in which he eminently excels 



9 



And on thofe Arts of Cultivation which his own rural Improvements belt illuftrate and explain 



i 



I S, 



With the greateft Propriety, Gratitude, and Refped, 



INSCRIBED, 






By his moil obliged and obedient Servant, 






London, May 2, 1763 




OHN RYALL 



/ 







A 










T will eafily be imagined that a foreft of a thoufand miles in length, extending twenty 



degrees in latitude from north to fbuth (for fuch is the territory of the crown of Great 
Britain on the continent of America) muft afford a plentiful variety of trees 



and fhrub 




that may be ufefully employed to inrich and adorn our woods by their valuable timber an 
delightful made ; or to embellifh and perfume our gardens with the elegance of their appearance 



and the fragrancy of their odours ; in both 
tions of the like kind. But however obv 



refpects they greatly excel our home produ 



this 



may 



now 



be 



very 



little 



gard 



w 



any confiderable 




e 




s had 
taken 



thereto at our firft fettling in thofe countries; nor indeed was 

towards introducing thefe ftrangers into England till about the year 1720, fince which time 



and through the laudable application of a few perfons only, many kinds of American plants, 
and particularly of foreft-trees and fhrubs, have been procured and raifed from thence ; which, 
though hitherto principally in the porTeffion of the opulent and curious, they, it is to be hoped, 



will 
that 




r the benefit of their country be excited to 
both Faunus 



g 




ieir 



propag. 



d increafc 



> 



an 




Flor 



a 



ay 



be 



fulted, as well for 



benefit of our wood 



as 



for 



ornaments to our gardens. 



The Mahgjgony 



a remar 



kabl 



inftance how greatly benefi 



fome 



f the American tree 







proper opportunities are re- 



may prove ; and likewife ferves to {hew, that length of time an 
quifite to difcover their nature and ufes; for this tree could not poffibly have efcaped the 
obfervation of the firft Europeans that fettled in Jamaica ; and yet the excellence of its wcoi 
was not taken notice of till at leafl: an hundred and fifty years afterwards. 



An 





the cafe mu 
certainly be the fame with many other trees, whofe properties lie ftill concealed ; and may 



probably fb continue, unlefs by their becoming free denifons of our woods and gardens, th 



t> 



plenty may afford opportunities of difcoverin 




th 



eir u 




s 




virtues ; w 




in an 




try, little inclined to improvements, and depending 




motnei 



ntry for all kinds o 




utenfils, cannot be expected. By the concurrent endeavours of the philcfopher and artifan, I 
queflion not but many of them will be found ufeful to purpofes, of which at prefent we have 

not the lead conception. 

This 







n 



• • 



a 




R E F A C E. 



This wh. le trad: of continent lying within the northern part of the temperate zone, pro- 
duces few plants but what will ftand the rigour of our winters in England ; for it is remarkable, 

. * 

that not ithflanding the moft fouthern part of the Englifh colonies on the continent of A me- 
rica are twenty degrees more fouth than England, the cold is there no lefs fevere than it is in 



England itfelf ; and confequently their plants are fo much the better adapted to the air of our 



Situation : and indeed, experience has Sufficiently proved how well the Englifli 



foil and climate agree with thefe plants ; for though they are not equally hardy, and fome 
(when fmall) require a little protection, yet there are other kinds which brave our winters as 
ftoutly as if they were our own productions. 






By a long acquaintance with the trees and fhrubs of America, and a conftant attention mice 




or feveral years to their cultivation here, I have been enabled to make fuch obfervations on 
their conflitution, growth, and culture, as may render the management of them eafy to thofe 



who diall be defirous to inrich their, country, and give pleafure to themfelves, by planting and 



increafing thefe beautiful exotics ; and I iliall think myfelf very happy, if this little work may 
excite any to what in my opinion is evidently a public good. * 



Few people have opportunities of procuring thefe things from America; wherefore, le 





- 

mould feem to treat of what cannot be get at all, or with very great difficulty, it leems proper 



to mention, that Mr. Gray at Fulham has for many years made it his bufinefs to raile and 



cultivate the plants of America (from whence he has annually frefh fupplies) in order to 




urnifli the Curious with what they want ; and that through his induftry and fkill a greater 



variety of American foreft-trces and dirubs may be feen in his gardens, than in any other place 
in England. 



As thofe who are defirous and have it in their power to procure large quantities of feeds and 




plants from America, may be at a lofs what inftrucHons to fend their correfpondents abroad, 
have been particular in giving an account where the feveral kinds of plants are to be found that 
are uncom: ion, and in directing how they are to be collected, packed up, and fecured, fo as 
to preferve them in good condition during their pafTage ; which are matters of the utmoft con- 
fluence, though lefs known even than their culture. 



The whole number of trees and dirubs here treated of confiir. of eighty-five, fixty-three of 
which are graved, and their figures here exhibited ; the remaining twenty-two are defcribed, 



but not graved, which is thought altogether unnecefTary, becaufe their defcription alone gives 

a clear idea of them without any other affiftance 5 which is not the cafe of thofe that are 
figured. 






As 



* 










R 





A 




E. 






« % • 



HI 



As this fmall trad is defigned intirely for ufe, I have endeavoured to contrive it in 




e 



molt intelligible and compendious manner I was able, both in regard to the ftyle and 



Jfo 



1 



the 



figures of the plants here exhibited ; judging it unnecefla 
directions for the management of every 
part < 




fill feveral pages with repeated 




ant, when a few lines may fuffice for the greater 

- 

f them: for as I have been particular in the culture of the firft plant (page i.) that may 



ferve alfo as a direction for moft of the reft, with fome fmall variation ; for in general all 



and fhrubs that come from within 



the fame latitude 





countries, require a ma 



gement in raifing them little different from one another 






As to the figures of the plants with all their parts, as leaves, flower 



3 




are comprifed 



little 



room 



> 



they are neverthelefs reprefented 




leir natural 



necefiarily gives a more perfect idea than if they had been contracted 



&c. though they 

, which 
I mall 




conclude with one obfervatioi 



whi 



c 




f however little confeq 



fmall er fcale 



everthele/s remarkabl 




urni 



ifhed 



which is, that a fmall fpot of land in America has, within lefs than half a century, 
England with a greater variety of trees than has been procured from all the other parts of the 
world for more than a thoufand years pail. 



N. B. Thofe marked with an afterifk are not engraved. 






Page 20, for Zanthoyxlum read Zanthoxylum 



I 



A 



CONTENTS. 






I 



* 




o 



N 



T 




N 



T 




TAGNOLIA altifjima, fiore ingenti ca. 
1 VJ. j;j* t T] ie Laurel-tree of Carolina 



Page 



didi 
2. Magnolia jiore alb 



i 



fol 



majore, acuminato 



baud albicante. The Magnolia of Pennfyl 



vama, 



3. Magnolia Lauri folio, fubtus albicante. 
fweet flowering or role Bay, 

4. 4. Magnolia amplifjima, fore albo, fruSlu 



The 



3 



bid 



cineo . 



The Umbrella 



Concerning O 



4 



ibid 



5 



6 



7 
8 



9 



o 



1 



2 



3 



4 



5 



20. 



21. 



22. 



Quercus folio 



fi 



gulo. The Water Oak 
Quercus humilior Salicis folio breviore 
Highland Willow Oak, 



fummitate quaji 



The 



5 



6 



mun 



Quercus alba Virginiana. The White Oak, ibid 
Quercus Carolinenfs, virentibus venis, 
cata. The White Oak with pointed notches, ibid 
Quercus Efculi divifura, foliis amplioribus 



leatis. The Red Oak 



bid 



% 



poti 



ih 



Marilandica, foh 



The Willow Oak 



longo angufio Sa 

Quercus fempervivens, foliis oblongis nonfinu- 

atis. The Live Oak, 

^uercus Caflane a foliis, procera arbor Virgi- 
niana. The Chefnut Oak, 
Quercus (forte) Marilandica, folio trifido ad 
faff'afras accedente. The Black Oak, 

Cupreffus Americana. The Cyprefs of Ame- 



7 



1 



bid 



i 



bid 



8 



nca, 



ibid 



aceris 



Liquid-ambari Arbor, feu Styracifua, 
folio, fruciu tribulo'ide. The Sweet Gum 
tree, 



bid 



6. Arbor Tulipifera Virgi 



ipartito 



fol 



dia lacinia velut abciffa. The Tulip 



tree, 



The Black 



7. Nux Juglans nigra Virginienfis. 

Walnut-tree, 

8. Nux Juglans alba. The White Walnut-tree, ibid 



9 



10 



9 . Arbor 



aqua 



ifcens, foliis lat 



& dentatis, fruciu eleagni majore. The Wa 

ter Tupelo, 

Nux Juglans alba Virginienfis. The Hie 

cory-tree, 

Nux Juglans alba Carolinenfis, minimo put a 
mine levi. The Pig- nut, 
Cafanea pumila Virginiana, fruciu 



11 



bid 



12 




in 



fingidis 



ipfulis echinatis unico. 



The Chinkap 



bid 



3. Cor nus Mas Virginiana, flofcul 



in 



digejlis perianthio titru 
cinclis. The Dogwood 



ipetalo albo rad, 



ymbo 



3 



24 



3 



1 




Amelanchior Virg 
The Fring 



I 



aft fol: 



Pag 



25. Agrifolium Carolinenfe, foliis dt 



baccis 



4 



rubris. The Dahoon Holly 



bid 



26. CaJTena 



Floridanoru 



rbufcula bacci 



fera Alaterni facie, foliis alternatimfn 



te- 



ipy 



The Yap 



bid 



27. Arbor in aqua nafcens, foliis lat is acuminatis 



& non dentatis, frudiu eleagni 
Tupelo 



The 



28. Laurus Carolinenfs, foliis acuminatis, baccis 



s 



uleis, pediculis long 
The Red Bay 



bris infi dent i bus 



6 



29. Ligujlrum Lauri folio, fruBu violaceo. 

Purple-berried Bay, 
3 o . Cor nus Mas odor at a, folio trifido margine ph 



The 



bid 



The Saflafras 

Smilax levis Lauri folio, baccis nigris. 
Bay-leaved Smilax with black b 



Th 



7 



1 



bid 



32. Smilax Brionice nigra? foliis c.-^'fp'vo/b, b 



cis nigris. The Smilax with bnon) i 



V* 1 






8 



3 3 . Smilax non Jpinofa humilis, baccis rubris. The 

Smilax with red berries, 
34. Barbajovis Caroliniana jrutefcens acacia fo- 



ibid 



Hi 



Jove's Beard, vulgo Ind 



35. Cbamarbododendros lauri folio femper virens, 

floribus bullatis corymbofis. The Rock Role 
of Pennfylvania, 
. Cbamce daphne femper virens foliis oblong 
gufis, foliorum fafciculis oppoftis e foliorum 



9 



bid 



s an- 



alis. The Ivy 
37. Z ant boxy lum fpinofi 

Tooth-ach-tree, 
3 8 . Anona fruciu lutefce 



The Pellitory 



20 



or 



bid 



levi, fc 



21 



39. F rut ex foliis oblongis acuminatis, floribus fp 



rfu dijpofi 



rheS 



ibid 



40. Pfeudo-acacia hifpida floribus rofeis. The Aca 



bac- 
The 



th rofe-coloured flo 

4 1 . Myrtus Brabantice fimilis Carolinienfi. 

cata fruciu racemofo fefjili , monopyreno 
Candle-berry Myrtle, 

42. Acacia, abrua foliis, triacantbos capfula ovali, 

unicum femen claudente. The Water Acacia, 

43. Frutex lauri longiore folio, 

44. Frutex, padi folds non Jcrratis, floribus mono- 
pet alis alb is, campani formibus, fruciu craffo 



bid 



22 



ibid 



3 



tetragoi 
45. Arbor lauri fol 



bid 




b 



orwus 



ex folic 
pentapetalis, plurihus flaminibus don 
Root, 



alis 
The 




F 



24 



VI 




O 



N 



T 




N 



T 



S. 






• > 






46. Prut ex foliis frratis floribus longkribus fpi- 

catis fubviridibus capfula pentag'ona, 

47. Bignonia urucu foliis, flore fordide albo, intus 

macidis purpuras & luteis afperfo, filiqua lon- 

■ gUfima & anguflifjima. The Catalpa-tree, 

48. Bignonia Americana capreolis donata filiqua 

breviore, 

49. Bignonia fraxini foliis, coccineo fore minor e. 

The Trumpet- flower, 

50. Chamadaphne foliis tini, floribus bull at is um- 

bellatis. The Ivy- tree of Virginia, 

51. Alcea Floridana, quinque capjularis laurinis 

foliis, leviter crenatis, feminibus cohiferarum 

inflar alatis. The Loblolly Bay, 

52. Guajacana. The Perfimmon-tree, 

53. F rut ex aqitaticus, floribus luteis, fruclu ro- 



5" 



T 



Page . 



24 



ibid. 



2 



D 



26 



ibid. 



27 
28 



tundo quinque capfulari, 
Philadelphus fore albo major e inodoro, 



ibid. 



i 



29 



$5. Cijius Virginiana, fore & periclymini. The 

Upright Honey-fuckle; 

56. fafminum luteuni odor at um Virginianum, 

fcandens, femper virens. The Yellow Jef- 

famin , 

57. Hamamelis, 

5 8 . F rut ex corni foliis conjugatis ; floribus inflar 



ibid. 



1 



3° 



ibid. 



*59 



anemones flellat a?, petalis crafjis, rigidis, co- 
lore for dide rubente -, cortice aromatico, 
The Chefnut-tree, 

*6o. Platanus Occidentalism The Weftern Plane- 
tree, 

*6l. Populus nigra folio maximo, gemmis balfa- 

mum odoratifljimwn fundentibus . The Poplar 
of Carolina, 

*6z. Fraxinus Carolinenjis, foliis anguflioribus 

utrinque acuminatis, pendulis, 

*6^. Acer Virginianum folio major e fubtus fu- 

The Red flowering 



. 3 1 

ibid. 



ibid. 



3 2 



ibid. 



1 



* 



pra viridi Jplendente. 
Maple, 



64. Acer Americanum, &c. 
*6$. Acer Maximum, foliis trifidis vel quinquefi- 

dis, Virginianum. The Afh-leaved Maple, 



ibid, 
ibid. 



33 









*66. Acer Carolinianum, foliis maximis fubtus ar 



Page. 



gentis in lacinias projundiores & magis acu- 
minatis divifis, 

Car pip inns, Virginiana florefcens. The flow- 
ering Horn-beam, 

*6$. Acacia Americana abruce foliis, triacanthos 



# 




33 



ibid. 



capfula ovali unicum femen claudente. 
Large thorned Acacia, 



The 



ibid. 



* 



* 



* 



* 



* 



^69. Pfeudo- acacia. The Locuft-tree of Vir- 
ginia, 

70. Cerafi fimilis, arbufcula Mariana pcedi folio, 

flore albo parvo racemofo. The cluttered 
Black Cherry, 

71. Aquifolium Virginianum. The Holly of 
America, 

72. Juniperus Virginiana. The Cedar of North 
America, 

73. CupreJJus Americana, fruBu minimo. The 
American Cyprefs. White Cedar, • 

74. Siliquaflrum Americanum. The Red Bud- 
tree, 

75. Rhus glabrum panicula fpeciofa coccinea, 

76. Pavia. The Scarlet flowering Horfe-chef- 

nut, 

jj. Mefpilus fpinofa. The Cockfpur Thorn, 

78. Periclymenum Virginianum, The Scarlet 
Honey-fuckle, * 

79. Phafeoloides, Caroliniana, frutefcens, fcan- 
dens, foliis pinnatis, floribus cceruleis fpicatis. 
The Kidney Bean-tree, 

*8o. Arbor Virginiana citria vel limonice folio, 

Benzoinum fundens. The Benjamin-tree, 

8 1 . Alni folia Americana ferrata, floribus penta- 

pe talis albis, infpicam difpofitis, 

82. F rut ex Virginianus trifolius ulmi famaris, 

83. Steuartia, 

84. Palma Brafilienfls prunifera folio plicatili feu 

flabelli forma caudice fquammato. The Pal- 

meto-tree of Carolina, 

*%$. Celt is. The Lote, or Nettle-tree of Ame- 
rica. 



34 



ibid. 



3$ 



ibid. 




ibid. 

37 



ibid. 



1 






ibid. 



* 



3 



8 



ibid. 



ibid. 



. .39 

ibid, 
ibid. 



40 



41 



1 






\ 



Hortus 






I 




r - 



4 i» 



■» 



" 






Hortus Britanno-Americanus 



• 



i • Magnolia altijfima^ flore in genii can dido. 



The Laurel-tree of Carolina, 




• * t * # - » 

all the trees able to endure our climate, that have yet been introduced to England, 
there is none that can equal this magnificent ever-green. Its ample and fragrant 
bloffoms. 



the curious ftrudture and beauty of its purple cones and pendent fcarlet 
feeds, luccemvely adorn and perfume the woods from May to O&ober ; and juftly intitle it to 

the varieties in the forefts of America. Thefe trees grow in the 



th 



e pre-eminence among 




lower parts of Carolina, and particularly in fuch places as are unfrequented by cattle and hogs ; 
which creatures are lo fond of the young plants, that they crop off their heads as faft as they 



appear above ground ; by w 



hich 



means 



they 



are 



become almoft extinct in many parts of 



the country, where they abounded before the introduction of cattle. 

Towards procuring the feeds of this tree in good condition, 
meafure on their being kept in fuch a degree of heat and moifture as is requisite to preferve 




fuccefs depends in a great 






them in their long paffage; for if they are 



put 



u 




too 




r y> 



thei 



r juices wi 




remain inactive 



and make no effort towards vegetation ; if they are kept too warm and moift, they will lprout 



in 




e box and perifli ; and too much moifture and cold rots them. 



The following method I recommend from my own experience : The cones or feed-veflels 



mould be 




uc 



ked 





rom tne tree in 



the 



month of September, when the 



feeds manifeft their 



beginning to ripen by burfting forth from the little cells wherein they are contained. 



After 



th 



e cones 



have 



lai 



e lain 





or a little while, the feeds may be taken out and fent to England as 



foon as opportunity offers, being packed up in the manner here defcribed. 



Prep 



fquare box 





le 





or a 



bum 



cl or 



lefs 



y 



bottom of which put a layer of 



light earth two inches deep, fpread thereon a fingle layer of feeds, then again a layer of earth 



> 



B 



and 



% 



and fo dhpofe your feeds and earth alternately, ftratum fuper ftratum, until the box be full i 

then nail down the lid and let it be placed between decks. As foon as you get the box from 
the fhip after it comes to England, feparate the feeds from the earth through a wire fieve, fpread 
them out and let them remain fo a day or two till they are dry ; then put them in a bafon of 
lukewarm water ; by which means the found feeds will be proved by their finking to the bottom,, 
and the bad ones by their floating. In whatever month they arrive, fow them immediately in 
the following manner : Procure earthen pans, or (hallow tubs filled with earth, in which fow 



the feeds thick, if your plenty of them will admit of it, even lefs than an inch from one 



another ; place them in a hot bed moderately warm, and keep them moift. In about two 
months they may be expected to appear above ground, though that is uncertain ; for in pro- 
portion to their warm or cold fituation in the fhip, their growing will be forwarded or retarded 






and they will come up fooner or later. After they are come up, let them have the fun but 



fparingly, and that principally in the morning, with frequent waterings ; and as they increafe 
in growth, harden them by degrees againft the approach of winter, in which feafon, when the 



weather proves moderate, the glaffes may be taken off j but as they are impatient of cold while 
they, are young, and their top-fhoots are liable to be nipped, care muft be taken that they be 
not too much expofed, for the lofs of their top-fhoot is a deformity they never out-grow, 
though they may furvive it. This caution of preferving their leading buds is continually to be 



obferved till the bignefs of the tree makes it lefs practicable : in March, or the beginning of 



April, transplant them from their genial beds into deeper pots, five or fix in a pot, or in pro- 
portion to the fize of the pot ; this caufes lefs trouble, and retards not their growth more than 



if one alone was in a pot, till they become of fit fize to require a pot for every one. 

Though thefc plants while young are very tender and require attendance, being arrived to 
the height of two feet they will endure our fevereft winters ; of which we had fufficient proof 



in the year 1740, when ten or a dozen of thefe fmall trees growing in the open ground 



without any protection were very little injured by that exceilive cold winter ; whilft at the 



fame time and place feveral hundreds of the fame kind, planted in fingle pots, which were 



fecuriry 



ed with reeds and double matted, perifhed every one, notwithftanding this feeming 



2. Mag- 














±. Magnolia flore albo, folio major e^ a cumin at o baud albicante. 

* 

The Magnolia of Pennfylvania. 









This tree rifes to the height of an hundred feet ; its leaves are fhaped like thofe of the lilac, 
but larger, and fall at the approach of winter : it produces early in the fpring white rofaceous 
flowers, which are fucceeded by purple conic feed-veflels, thick fet on the outfide with little 
protuberances, every one of which inclofes a fcarlet feed the fize of a french-bean. 

Thefe feeds, when they drop from their cells, fall not to the ground, but hang pendent by 



fmall white threads two or three inches below the cone. The feminal parts of this tree have 
fo near an affinity and refemblance to the magnolia altifftma, and the other kinds of this 
genus, that, excepting the difference in their fize, the fame defcription may almoft ferve for all 
the four fpecies. The wood of this tree has a fine grain, is tough, and of an orange colour, 
and is ufed by the American Indians for bowls and other utenfils : they grow on the north fide 
of Sufquahanna river, in the province of Pennfylvania, and alfo in the woods of New York : 
which northern fituation adapts them to our climate more than the other kinds ; and from 
the vigorous appearance of two or three very young plants now growing at Fulham, and which 
I believe are the only ones growing in England, there is good reafon to hope this majeftic tree 
may eafily be naturalized to our northern parts. 




Magnolia Lauri folio ^ fubtus albicante. 
The fweet flowering or rofe Bay. 



•»- 



Thefe trees are ufualiy of a fmall fize, fcldom growing to the height of twenty feet, and 




trunks rarely above eight or ten inches thick ; the leaves are fhaped like thofe of the 




common bay, of a fhining green, and white on the under fide : they bloffom in the month 



of May, producing a fucceflion of fragrant white flowers, which perfume the woods all the 



fummer long, and are fucceeded by pendulous fcarlet feeds difcharged from purple cones in 



like manner as the reft of the tribe. 

Thefe trees grow generally in a low wet foil, but if removed to high dry ground will become 



more regular and handfome, and more prolific in flowers and fruit : they ufually fhed then- 




leaves in winter, unlefs the weather be very moderate. They are natives of Virginia and a 
" great part of the northern continent of America. The feeds require the like management as 
thofe of the magnolia altifftma, but are raifed with more difficulty. 

» 4** 







Magnolia amplijjima^ flore albo^ fruSiu coccineo 



• 



The Umbrella-tree. 



/ 



The height of this tree is from fixteen to twenty feet, having a flender trunk of about five 



or fix inches diameter ; the leaves, which are thirty inches long and five in width, grow in 

» 

horizontal circles of about ten together, fomewhat refembling an umbrella ; in the center of 
which rifes a large greenifti- white flower, compofed of ten petals. The ftructure of the ovarium 
and feed-veflel is like thofe of the other fpecies. They grow in the fhady woods of Carolina, 

■ 

their ample and tender leaves not enduring to be ruffled in an open expofure. The feeds of this 
moft elegant plant require the like management as thofe of the magnolia altijjima ; but as it is 
a tender plant, it is raifed with more difficulty, and I fear will not abide our winters without 
fome protection. Very few of thefe trees are found in Virginia ; York River feems to be their 
moft northern boundary in which they are known to grow ; in Carolina they are in greater 
plenty, particularly in the path leading from Mr. Skene's houfe to his Savanna. 

The figures of all the plants here exhibited are done in their natural fize, except this 
alone ; which, though well deferving that advantage, could not be here effected, wherefore 
there was a neceflity of reducing it to this fmall fcale, the circle of leaves at its full growth 
meafuring nine feet. The flower is exhibited by itfelf. 



Concerning Oaks, 




The foil and climate of England being fb peculiarly adapted to the growth of the oak, it 
may be reafonably expected that the various fpecies of this tree which America abounds with, 
fhould alio agree and profper with us, at leaft as well as many other trees of thofe countries ; 

i 

but experience fhews otherwife, unlefs acorns are brought from the northward, as Pennfylvania, 



New York, &c. for they are frequently killed in the ground in winter that come from South 



Carolina, a country many degrees colder than England ; and are otherwife not well adapted to 



r climate, moft of them being reared with fbme difficulty ; wherefore it feems more feafible 
gratify and aflift the curious in getting together a collection of the various fpecies from the 
rthwafd, to increafe them fo much as to become naturalized to our woods. 



The planters of America multiply the fpecies of their oaks to twice the number they really 



have, by giving them different names according to the properties of their wood and the ufes 



th 



e 




/ 






they employ it 



■ 



method by no means proper to make them fufficiently diftinguifhed from 



one another, as the wood of different oak 



s 



commonly much 



d fit for the fame pur 



pole 



though perhaps the ftructure of the 



g 



may receive 



fom 



e 



alte 




the foil it 



grew in 



But what has moft contributed to multiply the fp 



of 



oaics 




the 



is, tne great variety o 



f diffi 



e 



fhaped 



eaves 



fome 



o 




thefe trees are 




to fport into 



w 





th 



1 



lcn, tnat tney 



mould be a 




produced from one and the fame 1 
fpecimens fent from America. 

The black oak is one inftance of 



the fame tree are not th 



feems incredible to thofe who have only feen the dried 



w 



hofi 




e 



are fome times a foot broad 



■ 



whilft 



o 



ther 



s 





great variety or appearance 
were not apparent to me, 



es broad, 2nd of very different fhapes. Notwithftand 
f American oaks, above the number of eleven or 1 twelve 





is 



<i> 



till by the indefatigable fearches of Dr. Mitchel, four or five more 



by him have been difcovered in the 






and unfrequented parts of 



Why may 



not the variety of leaves in this and fome other trees, as well as fome kinds of herbaceous 



plan 



> 



proceed 




rom 



th 



like caufc 



o 




pregnating other trees of the fame g 



which by 



deviating from the uniform courfe of nature produce in like mariner a fpurious breed ? 



Acorris of all kinds will not endure to be kept 




out of the ground, wherefore a quick 



paflage conduces not a little to their prefervation. So foon as they are gathered let them be 
fent in a box of fandy moift earth, and fown fo foon as they arrive. 




N. B. Though there is a general refemblance in the fhape, as well as fize, of acorns of the 
fame fpecies in moft oak, yet their diffusion is not to be determined thereby, becau 
fome acorns fport into the various fhapes of other fpecies, as has been before obferve 
their leaves. 




o 








Quercus folio non ferrato, in fummitate quaft trianguk 



The Water Oak. 



-This tree grows no where but in low waterifh lands: the timber is not durable, and there* 
fore of little ufe, except for fencing in of fields. Its acorns in fhape are not unlike the olive ; 
they are fmall and bitter, and even the hogs refufe them, if any other food is to be found. In 
mild winters it retains the greateft part of its leaves. 




6. tguefcus 




6. Que reus humilior Salicis folio breviore. 

The Highland Willow Oak. 



This is ufually a fmall tree, having a dark-coloured bark with leaves of a pale green, fhaped 
like thofe of the willow oak, but fhorter and not fo pointed : it grows on dry poor land, pro- 
ducing but few acorns, 



and thofe fmall 




Quercus alba Virginiana. 



The White Oak. 



This the iieareft refembles our common Englifh oak in the fhape of the leaves and manner 
of growing ; the bark is white, and the grain of the wood fine ; for which and its durablenefs 
it is much efteemed. It grows on all kinds of land, but moftly on high barren ground amongft 
pine-trees. There is alfo another kind of white oak, which in Virginia is called Scaly White 
Oak, whofe leaves are like this, but the bark is white and fcaly : its wood is of great ufe in 



building ; and it grows on rich lands both high and low. 



\ 




Quereus Carolinenfts, virentibus vents, muricata. 
The White Oak with pointed notches. 



The leaves of this oak are notched and have fharp points; the bark and wood is white, 
but has not fo clofe a grain as the preceding. Dr. Plunket has figured a leaf fhaped like this, 



The 




gure 



by the name of ^uercus Virginiana rubris venis muricata ; this has no red veins. 

of the white oak and that of the white oak with pointed notches are here expreifed by one leaf. 



9. Que reus Efeuli divifura, foliis amplioribus aculeatis 



The Red Oak. 



The leaves of this oak retain no certain form, but fport into various fhapes more than other 



oaks do : its bark 



is dark- coloured, very thick and ft 



rong 



and 




r tanning preferable to that 

a 

of any other kind of oak. The grain is coarfe, the wood ipongy and not durable ; however it 

ferves for pipe and barrel ftaves, clap-boards, and fence rails. They ufually grow large and lofty. 









10* 



QuercuSy an potius Ilex Mar Handicap folio longo angujto faltcts. 

The Willow Oak. 



This oak is always found in low wet lands : the wood is fbft and coarfe- grained ; the leaves 
are long, narrow, and finooth- edged. They drop them in Virginia, but in Carolina, where 
the winters are fbmewhat milder, they ufually retain them. 



1 1 . Quercus fempervivens y foliis oblongis non Jinuatis 

The Live Oak. 






The ufual height of this oak is about forty feet : its wood is heavier and more durable than 



to a 



large fi 



trunk and limb 



that of any other oak in America. Though it grows 

naturally crooked, and ferve excellently for timbers, knees, &c. for {hipping : they grow ufu 



ally in fait marfhes, and only in the lower parts of the country \ but if removed to a dry foil, 



become very ftraight and handfome trees; and in Carolina, their native country, are 



quick 



growers 



The acorns are the fweeteft of all others, and are in great efteem with the Indians 



y 



who ftore them up to thicken their venifon broth : they alfo draw from them an excellent fweet 



oil, which they ufe in cookery, &c. 



1 2 . Quercus Caflanete foliis , procera arbor Virginian a 



The Chefnut Oak. 



This oak grows only in low and very good land, and is the talleft and largeft of all the oaks 
in thefe parts of the world. The bark is white and fcaly ; the grain of the wood not fine, 
though it yields the largeft and faireft plank of any other oak \ the leaves are large, indented 



round the edges fomewhat like thofe of the chefnut 
other oak. 



The 



acorns are 



larg 



tha 



n o 



f any 



13. ^uercus 




\ 



13". ^uercus (forte) Mar Handicap folio trifido ad faffafras accedente. 



The Black Oak. 



IS 



This 
black 




ufually grows on the pooreft, land, and is but a fmall tree : the colour of its bark 



th 



e 



g 



is 



■ 

fe, but durable under water 



an 




is fometimes made ufe of for 



houf( 



e-wor 





bears good mart for hogs ; and fome of this kind produce leaves at leaft ten 



inch 



es 



wide. 



14. Cuprejfus Americana. 
The Cyprefs of America. 



The 



cyprefs 

world produces 
propagated 



s is 



ept the tulip-tree) the talleft and largeft of all the trees this part of the 
the ground fome of them meafure thirty feet in circumference : 





ey are 
feeds only; which are inclofed in a round feed-veflel in the manner of the 
European cyprefs, and contain a balfamic confidence of a fragrant fmell. The timber of this 
tree is excellent, and particularly for covering houfes, being light, of a free grain, and refilling 



the injuries of the weather better than any other made ufe of for this purpofe. It is an aquatic 



> 



and ufually grows from 



to fix feet deep in water 



wh 



1C 




fecure fituation and the fweet 



nefs of the feeds invite great numbers of different birds to breed and feed in its lofty branches. 

No American tree feems to affecl: the foil and climate of England more than this : its cones 
being r< 



plete 



w ltn 




turpentine, the feeds are fb well preferved in their paflage, that they rarely 



fail of growing, though fent 



any manner 



15 



» 

Liquid-ambari Arbor ; feu Styracifltta, aceris folio, fruciu tribuloide, 

u e. Pericarpio orbkulari ex quam plurimis apicibus coagmentato> femen recondens. 

The Sweet Gum-tree. 



The 




o 





lis tree is commonly two feet diameter, ftraight and free from branches to 

from which the branches ipread, and rile in a conic form 



the height of fifteen or twenty feet ; 

to the height of forty feet and upward from the ground. 



divided into 




many 







The leaves are five-pointed, being 
eep fedions, and are fet on flender pedicles : in February, before the 

leaves 





leaves are formed, the bloffoms begin to break forth from the tops of the branches into fpike 



of yellowifli, red, pappous, globular flowers ; which, when the apices are 




own 



off by 




i 



wind, fwell gradually, retaining their round form to the full bignefs of their feed-veffels, which 
are thick fet with hollow pointed protuberances, which being fplit open, each cell difcharges a 
mining black feed. 



Th 




wood is good timber, and ufed in wainfcotting, &c. its grain is 
and very fit for curious works in joinery ; but when wrought too 



fin 



beautifully 




reen, is apt to flirink 
and fly from its joints ; fo that the planks require fome years feafoning. The regular form and 



beauty of this tree deferves the 



gard 



of the Curious, as 



none of the American trees affecl: 



more our foil and climate : from between the wood and the bark there iflues a fragrant gum, 

congeals into tranfparent 



which trickles from the wounded 



tree, and by the heat of the fun 



refinous drops ; which the Indians chew, efteeming it a prefervative of the teeth : the bark is 

- 

alfo of Angular ufe to them for covering their houfes. A tree {tripped of its bark will in a few 

t days yield an hat-full of its odoriferous gum. In a warm afpecl: it will ftand our fevereft frofts 

in the open ground : the hardinefs of this tree, with its beauty and regular form, recommends 



it as extremely fit for avenues. 



* 

They are increafed by laying down their branches, and are as readily raifed from their feed 






the veffels containing the feeds mould be gathered a little before they open, and fent with the 
feeds in them ; or fow them in a box of moift mould, in which let them be brought, and they 
will come up well in a virgin foil without any afilftance. 



1 6 . Arbor lulipifera Virginiana, trip art ho aceris folio, media lacinia velut 



a 



bcijfa. 



The Tulip-tree. 



This tree grows to a large fize, being fometimes thirty feet 



mf< 



> 



and of a vaft 



height : in Virg 



called a Poplar, from the fimilitude of the grain of the wood to that 







or our common pop! 

8cc. being very lafting unde 

which refemblance 




i ufed 
round 



anks, mill-work, 



wainfcot fhingles to cover houfes, pi 
The flowers have always been compared to tulip 



y 



it takes its name ; though in reality they are more like the Fritilla 



from 
The 



cone it bea 



compofed of fingle-winged feed 



whi 



ch, when 



and 
befc 



ripe, fall from their placenta, 



are 



difperfed far and near by the winds : fo that although their cones are to be plucked 



they are ripe, they fhould be taken 



the critical time of their feeds beginning to drop 



> 



D 



o 



ther 



10 



lerwife they may by a fudden guft of wind be all blown off and loft. Though few trees 



America are more prolific of feeds than thefe, yet the feeds of many of them are fo apt to 
rove abortive, that a large quantity collected from different trees will admit of a better chance 




for raifing a number of them : put them up in a box of fand, and flow them in a dry place 



> 



for moifture in their paffage is apt to rot them. Sow them in pans in a hot bed, in which keep 
them till the winter is over : yet I have known them come up very well in a good virgin foil 



without art; it is beft therefore to try both ways with this feed, and all others from our 






thern colonies: but thofe that come moll northward are beft for our climate 



1 7 . Nux yuglans nigra Virginienfis 






The Black Walnut-tree. 



Thefe trees are rarely feen in the low and flat parts of the country, nor ever but on good 
land, and commonly near the fources of rivers : they grow to a vaft fize and in great plenty 
throughout the northern continent of America, particularly in the upper parts of Virginia and 
Carolina. The leaves are much narrower and fharper- pointed than thofe of our walnuts, and 
not fo fmooth ; the nuts are globular, ufually twice as big as the European kind, and the inner 



fhell fo very thick and hard, that great force is required with a hammer to break it ; the outer 



(hell is very thick, and rough on the outride : the kernels are very oily and rank-tafted, and 



notwithstanding they lofe much of their ranknefs when they have been laid by fome months, 



they are after all more agreeable to the palates of Indians than of Europeans. The great 
quantity of oil thefe nuts yield makes them highly efteemed amongft the Indians for their ufe- 
fulnefs in cookery. Thefe, as well as all other nuts and acorns, require to be put into the 
ground in a fhorter time after their being gathered, than moil other feeds ; fo that the quicker 
their paffage, the more likely is their chance for growing. 



1 8 . Nux yuglans alba. 



The White Walnut-tree. 






This tree is much fmaller than the black walnut, nor is it fo tall or fo ftraight in its trunk j 
the leaves are alfo of a paler green, and generally longer than thofe of the black walnut-tree. 
The bark is white - y the wood white, foft, coarfe-grained, and not durable : the nut is fome- 
what oval and very long ; and fome time after it is gathered has many parallel, rugged furrows 
running from end to end. They will fometimes lay two years in the ground before they fprout; 
they are rank-tafted, and food only for fquirrels and other wild animals. 



II 




* m 



1 9 . Arbor in aqua nafcens^ foliis /at is acuminatis & dentatis> fruSiu eleagni 



majore 



The Water Tupelo. 



This tree has ufually a large trunk, efpecially near the ground, and grows very tall : the 
leaves are broad and irregularly notched or indented ; from the fides of the branches fhoot forth 
its flowers on foot-ftalks three inches long, confifling of feveral fmall narrow greenifh petala on 
the top of an oval body (which is the rudiment of the fruit) at the bottom of which its perian- 
thium divides into four. The fruit when full grown is in fize, fhape, and colour like a fmall 



Spanifh olive, containing one hard channelled ftone more pointed at one end. There is fome 
what Angular and remarkable in the vegetation of this ftone ; for when the young 




ready to burft from its cell, nature follows not her ufual method of difcharging the kernel 
fplitting the ftone in two, but the germin pufhes out a little piece of the flat fide of the ftiell 




> 



and through the hole fo made the infant plant expands, and fhoots a tap-root dire&ly down 
wards. The grain of the wood is white, foft, and fpongy ; the roots are much more fo, ap 






proaching nearly to the confidence of cork, and are ufed in Carolina for the fame purpofes as 
cork, to flop gourds and bottles. Thefe trees always grow in wet places, and ufually in the 
fhallow parts of rivers. The feeds are very apt to grow, if planted before May ; after they 



are come up, water them often, by omitting which they are as apt to mifcarry : the fucceeding 
mmer the length of their tap-roots enables them to find moifture enough without the trouble 




of giving them water, except the weather proves exceffive dry. This ftately and Angular tree 
deferves well to be propagated, not only for its uncommon appearance, but as it may probably 
have many ufeful properties, befides what are already confpicuous ; particularly that of growing 
in the water, there being very few trees that will endure to live fo deep in that element. 



2,0. Nux yuglans alba Virginienfis. 

The Hiccory-tree. 



This is ufually a tall tree, and often grows to a large bulk, the body being from two to three 
feet diameter : the leaves are ferrated, and narrower and fharp er-pointed than thofe of our 
walnut. In O&ober, at which time the nuts are ripe, the outer fhell opens and divides in 
quarters, difclofing the nut, the fhell of which is thick and not eafy to break but with a 

hammer : 



12 



/ 



hammer : the kernel is fvveet 




well 



tafted, from which 



the Indians draw a wholfome oil 



7 



they alfo ftore them up for their winter provifion ; and the hogs, as well as many wild animals. 



great benefit from 




em 



The wood is coarfe-grained, yet of much ufe for many thing 



> 



belonging to agriculture* Of the faplings or young trees are made the beft hoops for tobacco 
rice, and tar-barrels ; and for the fire, no wood in the northern parts of America is in fo much 
requeft : its ftrength and toughnefs render it likewife in great repute for walking-flicks. 






21. 



Nux yuglans alba Carolinenfis^ minimo put amine kvi, 



Th 



e 



Pi 




nut. 



The branches of this tree fpread more, are fmaller, and the leaves not fo broad as thofe of 



the hiccory ; nor is the bark fo wrinkled : the nuts are not above one fourth 




big 



as 



thofe 



of the hiccory, and have 



both the inner and outer fhell fo thin that they may eafily be broke 



with one' s fin ger s ; the 



kernels are fweet, but covered with a 



very 



bitter fkin, which makes 



them not eatable, except by fquirrels and other wild creatures that can feparate this bitter film 
better than human hands are capable of doing. 



22. Caftanea fumila Virginiana^ fruBu racemato parvo in ftngulis capfulis 



e chin at is unico. 






The Chinkapin. 







This is a fhrub that feldom grows higher than fixteen feet, and ufually not above eight or 





ten ; the body is commonly eight or ten inches thick and irregular ; the bark rough ; the 



y 



leaves are ferrated, and grow alternately of a dark g 



their backfides being of a greenifl 



i 



white : at the joints of the leaves fhoot forth long fpikes of whitifli flow 
common chefnut, which are fucceeded by nuts of a conic fhape, 



like thofe of the 



and the fize of a hafel-nut 



the 



fhell which inclofes the kernel is of the colour and confiftence of that of a chefnut, inclofed in 



prickly burr ; ufually fi 



fix hang in a clufter : they are ripe in September 



Thefe nuts 



fweeter than the European chefnut, and of great ufe to the Indian 



y 



who lay them up for th 



When fent from America they frequently difappoint our expe&a 



winter's provifion. 

will not come up ; for which two reafons may be afligned ; 



> 



and 



y 

apt to have maggots in them, which devour the 




le 



firft i 



is 



> 



kernels, and 



m 



ak 



e 



th 



em 



that they are very 

or nothing ; 






and the fecond, that being kept too long 



f the ground, they lofe their germinating power 




13 



by the length of their paffage : if therefore fome of them be put up in moift earth, and others 

land, a better chance may be expected than when they are all fent together packed up 





in the fame manner ; for each of thefe ways may fucceed beft at different times, though perhaps 
that can no more be accounted for in thefe than in many other feeds, which this method has 
proved very ufeful to. ^ 



4 

All thefe, different kinds of nuts may be fent in cafes, their interftices being rilled up with 
light dry earth or fand. 






*3 



Cornus Mas Virginiana^ jiofculis in corymbo digeftis perianthio titrapetalo 

albo radiatim cinEiis. 



The Dogwood-tree. 



This is a finall tree, the trunk being feidom more than eight or ten inches thick : the leaves 
refemble thofe of our common dogwood, but are fairer and larger, (landing oppofite to each 
other on foot-ftalks of above a foot long ; from among which branch forth many flowers in the 
following remarkable manner : In the beginning of March the blofibms break forth, and though 



perfectly formed, and wide opei 



not 



fo wide as a fix-pence, but they increafe gradually to 



the breadth of a man s hand, being not at their full bignefs till about fix weeks after their firfl 
appearance : each flower confifts of four green ifh- white leaves, every leaf having a deep inden- 
ture at its end. From the bottom of the flower rifes a tuft of yellow ftamina ; every one of 






which opens on the top into four fmall leave 



s or 



petal 



The wood is 



white, ha 



s a 



clofi 



e 



grain 
two 



an 




very 



hard, like that of box. The flowe 




m 



s are fucceeded by clufters of berries from 
duller, clofely joined and fet on foot-ftalks an inch long : thefe berries are 



red* of an oval form, and of the 




f large haw 



g 



hard (tone. As the flowers 



are a great ornament to the woods in Summer, fo are the berries in Winter ; for they ufiially 
remain in full beauty on the trees till the approach of Spring. Thefe trees bear the fevereft 
weather m England, without luffering any injury therefrom: they produce here plenty of 
fuckers, by which they may be as plentifully increafed. I have not heard of any flower or 
fruit of them produced in England. 


















E 



24. Ame 



14 



~ 









24 



Amelanchior F~irginiana y lauro cerafi folio. 

- 

The Fringe- tree. 






On the batiks of rivulets and running ftreams this fhrub is moft frequently found : it 
from fix to ten feet high, ufually with a crooked, irregular, fmall ftem. Its leaves are of a lig 



grows 




green, and fhaped like thole of the 



ge : in May it produces bunches of white flowers 



> 



hanging on branched foot-ftalks of half an inch long ; each flower has four narrow thin petals 
about two inches long ; to thefe fucceed round dark-blue berries of the fize of a fmall olive : 

in their paflage, and lofe their vegetative faculty ; 

is a very hardy plant, and makes an 



the 



berries being fucculent are often rotted 



but they will increafe by laying down their branches, 
agreeable appearance, efpecially while in 





flbm. 



• 






2 5 



Agri folium Carolinenfe y foliis dent at is baccis rubris 






Th 



e Dahoon Holly. 






This Holly grows eredt fixteen or twenty feet high ; the branches fhooting ftraighter and 



of quicker growth than the common kind : the 
more pliant ; not prickly, but ferrated only : the be 



leaves 



are 



are 



long 
red. 



of a brierhte 




r 



green 



j 



and 



growmg 



large 

o 



thick cluf 



ters 



This plant is not common in Carolina; it grows particularly at Colonel Bull's plantation 



v 



Afhley river, in a bog much frequented by allig 



The berries 



much time befo 



when fown, require 



they appear above ground, as the common holly : their branches being laid 



j 



will alfo take root 



They are fomewhat tender, 



and 



equire a little protection in rigi 




winters 



26. 



Cajfena 



vera JFloridanorum 



9 



arbufcula baccifera Alaterni facie ^ 



foliis 






alt em at im ftis y 



tetrapyrene 



The Yapon. 



This fhrub ufually rifes from the ground with feveral ftems to the height of twelve feet, 




t> 



mooting into many upright, {lender, ftiff branches covered with a whitim, fmooth bark, and 



a 



tely 



th fmall ever 



> 




ferrated leave 






3 



refembling thofe of the Alaternus 



flowers 



\ 



flowers are finall 



fmall fpherical berr 



and white, arid 



grow promifcuoufly amongft the leaves ; and are fucceeded by 



on 




foot-ftalks : thefe b 



turn re 




Odtober, and remain 




allth 



winter 



whereby, with the green leaves and white bark, they produce 



an 




gant ap 



pearance 
make c 



But the efteem the American Indians h 




or 



th 



is 



fhrub, from the 



great 



u 




they 



f it, renders it moft worthy notice : they fay its virtues have been known amongft them 



from the earlieft times, and they have long ufed it in the fame manner they do at prefent 
prepare the leaves for kee 



y 



they 



ping by drying, or rather parching them in a pottage-pot over a flow 
fire ; and a ftrong decodion of the leaves thus cured is their beloved liquor, of which they 
drink large quantities, both for health and pleafure, without fugar or other mixture 




> 



drink it 
they fay 




own 



d difgorge it with eafe, repeating 



they 



very 



c. 



and fwallowing many qi 



reft 



ores 



o 




ppetite, ftrengthens the ftomach, and confirms 




eir 



health 



3 



giving 



them agility, and courage in war. 

It grows chiefly in the maritime parts of the country, but not further north than the capes of 
Virginia. The Indians on the fea-coafts fupply thofe of the mountains therewith, and carry on 



a 



nfiderable trade with it in Florid 




u 




as the Spaniards do with their South-Sea tea 



from Paraguay to Buenos Ay 



Now Florida being in the fame 






fouth, and no apparent diffe 



being found on 



to^ethe 



latitude north, as Paraguay 
comparing the leaves of thefe two plants 



to 



improbable they may be both the fame 



In South Carolina it is called CaiTena, in Virginia and North Carolina it is known by the 



name of Yapon ; in 



th 



e 



latter of which pi 



much in ufe amongft the White People 



as among the Indians ; and elpecially among thofe who inhabit the fea-coafts. 

This plant is raifed from its feeds, which lay two years in the ground before it appears 
grows plentifully on many of the fand-banks on the fea-fhore of Carolina. 



• 

it 






*7 



Arbor in aqua nafcens, foliis I at is acuminatis 




non dentatis, fruBu 



minore. 



eleagni 

The Tupelo-tree. 



Th 



tree ufually grows 



larg 



and fpreading, with an eredl trunk and regular head 



the 





fet with oval 



leaves are fhaped like thofe of a bay-tree. In Autumn its branches are 

black berries on foot-ftalks \ each berry having an hard channelled flattifli ftone, which contains 



The 



gram 



f the 



a kernel of a very bitter tafte ; yet are they food for many wild animals, 
wood is curled and very tough, and therefore proper for naves of cart-wheels, and other country 

ufes. 






i6 



ufes 



They g 



uiua 




n 




places in Virginia and Carolina ; in the firft of which 



countries they are called Black Gum-trees. 







• 



The berries lay in the ground two and fometimes three years before they fprout. 















■ 









V 



28. Lauras Carolinenjis, foliis acuminatis, baccis cceruleis, pediculis longis 















rubris injidentibus. 


















Th 



e Red Bav. 












*\ 









flfc 






The leaves of this tree are in fhape like thofe of the common bay, and of an aromatic fcent : 



the berries when ripe are blue, growing two and fometimes three together, on foot-ftalks two 



three inches lone, of a 




red colour, as 



is the calix or cup of the fruit ; which is indented 



> 



about the edges. Thefe trees are not very common in Virginia, except in fbme places near the 
fea j in Carolina they are every where feen, particularly in low fwampy lands : in general they 



arrive but to the 




of fmall trees and fhrubs ; 



though in fome iflands, and particular places 



near 




c 




1 



5 



they grow to large and ftraight-bodied trees. The wood is fine-grained, and of 



excellent ufe for cabinet 



&c 



I have {em fome of this wood that has refembled watered fattin 






j 



and whofe grain has exceeded in beauty the grain of moft woods I ever faw. This is a green 
houfe plant, it being incapable of enduring the cold of England. 



W M 









* 



2.9. Ligujirum Lauri folio, fru&u violaceo. 

The Purple-berried Bay. 



This tree grows ufually fixteen feet high ; the trunk is from fix to eight inches diameter 






the leaves 



are 



very 




mooth, and 



of 



a lighter green than the common bay- tree j but in their 



manner of growing refemble the leaves of that tree. In March, fpikes fhoot forth from between 
the leaves two or three inches in length, producing tetrapetalous, very fmall, white flowers that 



grow oppofite to each otl 



foot-ftalks half an inch long 



th 



berrie 



are 




lobular, about 



the fize of a very large pea, and covered with a thin purple-coloured fkin, inclofing a kernel 
which divides in the middle. I never faw thefe trees growing but near the little town of Dor- 
chefter on Afhley river. They may be increafed by fowing their berries, and alfo by laying 









though they are fomewhat tender, and will not endure the open air without being planted in a 
well-flieltered and warm afpeft. 









30. Cornus 



I 




17 




3° 



Cornus Mas odorato^ foli 



trifido margine plan 



The Saflafras-tree. 



1 

This is generally a fmall tree ; the trunk being ufually lefs than a foot thick : the leaves are 




How 



* 

divided into three lobes by very deep incifures. In March come forth bunches of fmall 
flowers with five petals each ; which are fucceeded by berries, in fize and fhape not unlike 
thofe of a bay-tree, hanging on red foot-ftalks, with a calix like that of an acorn, which calix 
is alfo red : the berries are at firft green, but when ripe, blue. 

This tree grows in moft parts of North America, and commonly on very good land : its 
medicinal virtue is very well known as a fweetener of the blood ; I ihall therefore only add, 
that in Virginia a ftrong decoction of the root has fometimes been given with good fuccefs for 



an intermitting fever. It will endure our climate in a warm fituation. The berries being 
fomewhat fucculent fhould be laid out to dry before they are put up, for fear of rotting in their 
paflage, which fhould be fhort, for they will not endure being kept long out of the ground. 



31 



Smilax levis lauri folio , baccis 



nig 



rzs. 



The Bay-leaved Smilax with black berries 



This plant is ufually found in moifl pla 



fends forth from its 



many green ften 



whofe branches overfpread whatfoever ftands near it to a very confiderable difta 



nd 



fre 



quently climbs above fixteen feet in height ; growing fo very thick, that in Summer it makes 



an impenetrable made, and in Winter a warm fhelter for cattle. The leaves are of the colour 
of the laurus cerafus^ or common laurel, but in fhape more like the bay, without 



any 



fiblc 



veins, the middle rib only excepted. 
The flowers are fmall and whitifh 



f 



the 




uit grows in round clutters, and is a black berry 
containing one fingle hard feed which is ripe in Odober, and is food for many forts of birds. 



3 



F 



32. Smilax 






i8 



3 2 . Smilax Brionia nigra foliis caule fpinofo, baccis nigris 



The Smilax with briony leaves 



This plant flioots forth with many pliant thorny ftems; which, when at full bignefs, are 
as big as a Walking-cane, and jointed ; and rifes to the height ufually of twenty feet, climbing 



upon and fpreading over the adjacent trees and flirubs by the afliftance of its tendrels. In 



Autumn it produces clutters of black round berries, hanging pendent to a foot-ftalk about 



three inches long ; each berry containing a very hard roundifh feed. The roots of this plant 



are tuberous, divided by many knots and joints ; and when firft dug out of the ground are foft 
and juicy, but harden in the air to the confiftence of wood. Of thefe roots the inhabitants 
of Carolina make a diet-drink, attributing great virtues to it in cleanfing the blood, &c. They 
likewife in the Spring boil the tender moots, and eat them prepared like afparagus. It is called 

there China-root. 



*2>y Smilax non fpinofa, hum His baccis rubris. 



The Smilax with red berries. 






Thefe plants are always mpported by trees and flirubs, on which they creep, and claip with 
their tendrels. The leaves are long and narrow at both ends ; they are thick, ftiff, and mining, 
With a fingle rib in the middle, and are fet alternately at wide distances : at the ends of the 
fmaller branches are produced hexapetalous greenim-white flowers, which grow in umbelliferous 
tufts, and are fucceeded by globular mucilaginous red berries, each berry containing a very hard 
roundifh ftone. Thefe plants with their glittering fcarlet fruit, and by retaining their green 
leaves, make an elegant appearance all the winter ; at which time the berries ferve as food to 
thrufhea and other birds, and the whole plant as a warm fhelter for them in that cold feafon : 

- 

they ufually grow in bogs and watry places in Virginia and Carolina. I never, knew them raifed 
from their feeds, which being exceeding hard, require to be fown in moift earth. 



\ 



«*■ 



34. Barb a 






*9 



34* Barba jfovis Caroliniana frutefcens acacia foliis 



t 



» 



Jove's Beard, vulgo Indigo-tree. 




The main item of this plant feldom grows bigger than a man's wrift ; from which moot 

* 

forth long ftraggling branches to the height of about twelve or fixteen feet, fet with long fpikes 
of papilionaceous purple flowers, which are fucceeded by fhort pods, containing in every one a 
{ingle feed or little bean. 



They may be propagated by their feeds, 
ftand our fharpeft winters in a warm afpe£h 



as 



well 



by laying down their branches ; and will 



3 5 , Cham<erhododendros lauri folio femper virens^ floribus bullatis corymbofis 






The Rock Rofe of Pennfylvania. 



This tree rifeth to the height of about 

fhi 



fixteen feet, producing 



green 



leaves 



in 




ap 



the 




owers, which 



grow 



clutters, are mono 



thefe flowe 



> 



like the laurus cerafus^ of a mining green : 

. - 

petalous, divided into five fegments, and fet fingly on pedicles half an inch long 

when blown, appear white, but on a nearer view are of a faint blufh-colour, which as the 

flowers decay grows paler. One of the Rvc petals is longer and more concave than the reft, 



and is blended with yellow, 




> 



and purple fpeck 



bein 




vifcous matter on the extremi 



ties of very fine hairs : the convex fide of the fame petal is alfo ipeckled with yellowifh-green . 
The pointel rifes from the centre of the flower, and has its head adorned with fcarlet, and 



furrounded by ten ftamina, whereof three are long and feven fhort, whofe farina iflues out at 



a fmall hole on its top. This elegant tree adorns the weftern and remote parts of Pennsylvania ; 




e mo 



always growing in 

and in fliady moift places. 





er 




foil 



, or on the rocky declivities of hills, on river banks, 



36. Cha 



ao 



3 6 . Chamxdaphne femper virens foliis oblongis anguftis, fol or urn fafciculis 

oppofitis e foliorum alis. 

The Ivy-tree. 



The leaves of this plant are fhaped like thofe of the fallow, or falix folio rotundo, and 
^r-green, like the chamcedaphne foliis tini y 



to which it bears 



efemblance in the ftruc 



5 



with 



a 



ftilus 



and ten ftamina, which 



grow in 



ture of its flowers, being monopetalou: 

clufters oppofite to each other out of the ales of the upper leaves. The cup is alfo indented 
the like curious manner, and of a blulri rofe-colour. 

rifing above four or five feet high : this fhrub h 



fmall 




feems to be but of fhrub 



growth, not 



a 



native of Pennfylvania, and produced its bloflbms at Peckham, in the garden of Mr. Collinfon 









\ 



37 



Zanthoyxlum fpinofum. 



The Pellitory, or Tooth-ach-tree. 



This tree feldom grows above a foot in thicknefs, and about fixteen feet high : the bark is 
white and very rough ; the trunk and larger limbs are in a Angular manner thick fet with pyra- 
midal fhaped protuberances pointing from the tree \ 



thorn; thefe protube 



r 



are or 



th 



tree ; at the end of every one of which is a fharp 
fame confiftence with the bark of the tree and of various 



fizes, the largeft being as big as walnuts : the fmaller branches are befet with prickles only. 
The leaves are pennated, ftanding on a rib fix inches long, to which the lobes are fet, one 



) 



* 



their greateft 



vein 



againft another, with foot-ftalks half an inch long ; thefe lobes are awry 

not running in the middle, whereby one fide of the leaf becomes bigger than the other. From 

the ends of the branches ihoot forth long ftalks of fmall pentapetalous white flowers with reddifli 

ftamina : every flower is fucceeded by four mining black feeds contained in a round green 

capfula. 



Th 



e 



leaves fmell like thofe of the orange, and, as well as the feeds and bark, are 

^nt; and are ufed by the people inhabiting the fea-coafts of 



aromatic, very hot, and aftring 



Virginia and Carolina for the tooth-ach, from whence it derives its name. Thefe trees are not 



to be met with farther north than the fouthermoft parts of Virg 



the fea-coafts 



there but only 






38. Anona 




21 



3 8 . AnoHa fruSiu lutefcente, levi, fcrotum arietis referente 



The trunks of thefe trees are feldom bigger than the fmall of a man's leg, and are about 
ten or twelve feet high, having a fmooth, greenifh, brown bark. In March, when the leaves 



beg 



fprout, its bloffoms appear ; confining of fix greenifh 



> 



white, purple 



petal 



the fi 



grows in cluflers, three and fometimes four together - y they are at firft green, but when ripe 




wi 



th 



a 




in, fmooth fkin, which contains a yellow pulp of a fweet 



j 



yellow, and are covere 



— - 

lufcioUs tafte j in the middle of which lay iii two rows twelve feeds, divided by as many thin 
membranes. All parts of the tree have a rank, if not a fetid fmell ; nor is the fruit relifhed but 



by very few 



pt neg 



Thefe trees grow ufually in low fhady fwamps, and in a very fat 



foil. A full-grown fruit is about the fize of a large cucumber. It produces its bloffoms 



ntially in the gardens of his Grace the Duke of Arg 



39 



1 

Frutex folih oblongis acuminates, floribus fpicatis unoverfu difpojitis. 



The Sorrel-tree. 



The trunk of this tree is ufually five or fix inches thick, an 




rifes to the height of about 



twenty feet ; having flender branches clofe-fet with leaves fhaped like thofe of the pear-tree : 

of the branches proceed little white monopetalous flowers, refembling thofe o 




rom 



th 



e enus 





the Arbutus, thick-fet on fhort foot-ftalks that grow on one fide of many flender ftalks, which 



hang down from one fide 




of the main branch 



4° 



Pfeudo-acacia htfpida floribus rofeis. 



The Acacia with rofe^coloured flowers. 



The flowers and leaves of "this tree differ but little in fhape from the pfeudo-acacia fiore albo ; 
but the ftalks and larger branches are thick-fet with prickly hairs and with fharp fpines placed 
alternately : the flowers are of a light rofe-colour, which, added to the bright verdure of the 

4 - 

leaves, renders it fo beautiful that few trees make a more elegant appearance. 

This rare tree has lately been procured by Sir John Colliton, Bart, from his plantation at 

■ 

Carolina, and flourifhes annually in his gardens at Exmouth in Devonfhire. 






G 



41. Myrtus 



22 



4 1 . Myrtus Br ab antic e ftmilis Carolinienfis^ b ace at a fruSiu racemofo feffili, 

monopyreno. 



i 



The Candle-berry Myrtle. 



Thefe 



are 



but 



fmall trees, or 



fhrubs, about twelve feet high 



> 



with crooked ftems branching 



forth near the ground irregularly : the leaves are long, narrow, and fharp-pointed. . Some trees 



have moft of their leaves ferrated, others not. 



In May, the fmall branches 



are alternately and 
thick fet with oblong tufts of very fmall flowers, refembling in form and fize the catkins of the 



hafel-tree, and coloured with red and 



green; thefe are fucceeded by fmall clufters o 




blue 




erries, clofe connected like bunches of grapes : the kernel is inclofed in an oblong hard ftone 



> 



incruftat 



% 




over 



with 



an unduous, mealy fubftance; which is what yields the w r ax whereof 



candles are made in the following manner : 



to 



In November and December, at which time the berries are ripe, it is cuftomary for a man 
to remove with his family, from his own home, to fome ifland or fand-bank near the fea where 
thefe trees moil: abound, taking with him kettles to boil the berries in ; he builds a hut with 
palmeto 



leave 



or four weeks. 




th 




elter of himfelf and family while they flay, which is commonly three 



The man cuts down the trees 



, while the children ftrip off the berries into a pottage-pot, and 
having put water to them, they are boiled till the oil floats, which is fkimmed off into another 
veiTel ; and this is repeated till there rifes no more oil : this when cold hardens to the confiflence 



of wax, and is of a dirty-green colour ; but they boil it again, and clarify it in brafs kettles, 



which gives it a tranfp 



greennefs. Thefe candles b 



a long time, and yield a grateful 



fmell ; people ufually add a fourth part of tallow, which makes them burn clearer. 
There grows in Carolina another kind of this tree with broader leaves. 
The wax with which thefe berries are covered is no fmall prefervative to them in their pafiag 



from America: 




that being fown thick in pans, and ailifted by the moderate heat of a hot 



bed, they feldom fail of comin 




care 



required 



anlplanting 



anoth 





rom me co 




up thick : as their ftems are very flender while young, great 

that they may the better defend 
winter, as well as from the fcorching heat of the fun in rummer. 




lem, which mould be clofe 



They are very hard when raifed, and will endure our fliarpeft winters 



> 



42. Acacia 



1 



*3 



42 



Acacia > abru<e foliis, triacanthos capfula ovali, unlcum femen claudentt* 



The Water Acacia. 



• 



This tree ipreads and grows to a large fize : the leaves are winged and compofed of many 
fmall, pointed lobes, like moft others of its genus. The fruit is fomewhat like a bean, con- 



tained in an oval capfula 




of which commonly grow together 



bun 



c 




many very larg 



fharp thorns are fet on its branches and larger limbs. This tree I never faw but at one place ii 
Carolina, growing in fhallow water, near the fprings of Afhley river ; and no doubt in othe 
places. ' . ■ ' 



43 



• 

Frutex lauri longiore folio* 



This fhrub is a native of Virg 



> 



and grows in wet fwamps and (landing waters ; it rifes 



from the ground with many ftems to the height of eig 



ht or ten feet, which are 



of a reddifh 






colour. 



The leaves are placed alternately an inch from one another, and are in fhape like 



thofe of a bay, ftiff and mining ; at the pedicles of the leaves grow 



the flowers, which 



are 



tubulous, of a pale red colour, and fet on {talks three inches long ; thefe flowers are fucceeded 
by fmall conic feed-veffels about the fize of large peas, that when ripe open in two parts 
difplay many fmall feeds. It retains its 







leaves all the winter 



44 



Frutex, padi foliis non f err at is, floribus monope talis albis, campani for- 

mi bus, fruBu crajfo tetragono. 



The trunk of this fhrub is (lender ; fometimes two or three ftems rife from the fame root to 
the height ufually of ten feet. The leaves are in fhape like thofe of a pear. In February and 
March come white flowers in form of a bell, hanging ufually two and three together, 




the fides 



f th 



e 



branches, on foot-ftalk 



an 1 



nch 





rom the middle o 




the 




ower 



rom. 



four 



ftamina {hoot forth, with a ftilus extending half an inch beyond them of a reddifh colour ; 



thefe flowers are fucceeded by oblong quadrangular feed-veflels pointed at 




le 



end 



s 



45. Arbor 



+ 
\ 



24 



45 



Arbor lauri folio^ floribus ex foliorum, a lis pentapetalis^ pluribus ft ami- 

nibus donatis. 






The Root 



It has a flender ftem, and grows ufually about eight or ten feet high : its leaves are in fli 



ape 





like thofe of a pear, growing alternately on foot-ftalks of an inch long ; from between which 
proceed fmall whitifh 




owers 



coniifting of five petals; in the middle whereof fhoot forth 
many fmall ftamina headed with yellow apices. The roots of this plant are made ufe^of in 
decoctions. 



and are efteemed ftomachic, and a 



cleanfer of the blood : the fruit I have not 



feen. 



It grows in moift fhady woods in the lower parts of Carolina. 




fends forth its blot 



foms in February ; and is 




r its virtues, by way of eminence, called the Root. 



4 6 



Frutex foliis ferratis, 



floribus 



'ongioribus fpicatis fubviridibus capfula 



pentagona 



This fhrub is ufually {lender in the main ftem 



> 



ipread 




into many pliant branches, to the 




ht 



o 




about ten feet : its leaves are fet alternately 



> 




g 



the edges finely ierrated 



the 



flowers are tubulous, of a greenim- white, with a pointel reaching a little above the verge of the 
cup ; theie flowers are fucceeded by round berries, which when ripe open, and divide into five 
' fections, inclofing many fmall feeds. They grow in moift places in Carolina and Virginia. 






47. Bignonia urucu foliis , flore fordid^ albo^ intus maculis purpureis 




luteis afperfo. 



filiqua 




igffi 



f ima 




anguftijfima. 



The Catalpa-tree. 



This tree ufually rifes about twenty feet and fpreads much ; the bark is fmooth. the wood 



> 



foft and fpongy, the 




inches 



and 



mcnes over, ana or a ongnt green 




aves 



bright 




aped like thofe of the lilac, but much larger, lome being ten 



fatti 



in 



hue. 



About the beginning of Auguft it 




ro 



duces 



large bunches of tubulous white flowers, compofed of one petal divided into four lips : 



the 



infide of every flower is powdered as it were with 



purple fpecks, through 



which run two 

parallel 








*5 

parallel chains of larger fpots of a yellow colour, decreafing gradually to -the center 
the calix is 



r 



cup 



bivalved, of a copper colour, and before it opens is fliaped like a pear. The fl 



are fucceeded by pods twelve or fourteen inches long, which when ripe open, and difplay th 



feeds, which 
Apocynum. 



are 



Th 



wing 



ed, and 



le 



another like the fcales of fim 




tree was not kno 



to the inhabitants of Carol 



the feeds o 



till the feeds were 



untry; an 




th 




the inhab 



ttl 



brought there from the remoter parts of the cc 

curious in gardening, the uncommon beauty of this tree induced them to propagate it for 




the ornament of their plantations ; it is fince become naturalized to England ; and did in 
Auguft 1748 produce, at Mr. Gray's, fuch numbers of 'bloffoms, that the leaves were almo 
hid thereby. It delights in a rich moift foil, not expofed to winds ; and will increafe by feed 
and cuttings. 



■ 

4 8 . Bignonia Americana capreolis don at a filiqua breviore 



This plant ufually grows on the fhady banks of 
to the height of twenty and fometimes 



> 



1 

rifing with many fingle pliant ftem 



near 



) 



which it may climb and fallen its clafping tendrels 



thirty feet, if fupported by trees and fhrubs growing 

From 




ftalk 




s moot forth their leaves, fl 



owers, and tendrels: four leaves 



by pairs 
ngth; 



two horizontal fhort ftalk 



then 1 



owers 



e joints of the trailin 
grow at every joint, placed 
fet on foot-ftalks of above an inch in 




are 



monopetal 






and divided into five fe<£tions, which refledt 



back, and are o 




a 



bright yellow within, but the outfide of the flower is of a cinnamon colour, and has within it 



four ftamina with a ftil 



The feeds are winged, and fixed to a placenta within a pod 



Th 



beautiful plant is a native of both Virginia and Carolina, and blows there 
Englan 





bloflbms not b 



being at their arrival fown in a hot bed 



in May ; though 
Auguft. Thefe feeds fhould be brought over in their pods, i 




moderately warm, will not lay long before they appear 



above ground ; they require fome care an 
but are able afterwards to abide our open a 




protection till they have pafled the fecond 



7 






a 



49. Bignonia 



26 



4<?. Bignonia fraxini foliis, coccineo flore mlnore 

The Trumpet-flower. 






. Thefe plants climb trees, on which they run a great height, and are frequently feen to cover 
even the dead trunks of very tall trees : the leaves are winged, confifting of many ferrated lobes 



{landing by couples oppofite to each other, on one rib„ In May, June, July, and Auguft, 



they produce bunches of red flowers, fomewhat like the fox-glove; each flower fhoots from 
a reddifli-coloured calix, is monopetalous, Iwells in the middle, and opens at the top into five 





ips, with a pointel arifing from the calix through the middle of the flower. In Auguft the 
cods or feed-vefiels appear ; they are, when full-grown, eight or nine inches long, about the 

of a man's thumb, and fomewhat tapering at both ends '> and divide from end to end in 
two equal parts, difplaying many flat winged feeds* 

Thefe feeds Aiould be fent to England in their cods, and will grow very readily when fown 
ill pots, with the moderate heat of a hot bed ; the fucceeding winter a continuance of protec- 
tion is neceflary, but in the ipring they may be planted out in a warm fituation, where they 



will abide the rigour of our fharpeft winters ; and their trailing branches being fupported, they 
will produce plenty of their beautiful bloflbms. 

here are two kinds of this plant, which are fb like each other that they feem to differ 




only in fize. This here defcribed is the larg 



5 o . Cham <e daphne foliis tini, floribus bullatis umbellatis. 



The Ivy-tree of Virginia. 



This ever- green fhrub rifes ufually to the height of five or fix feet, and fometimes to twice 

9 

that height : the Hems of fome are as big as a man's wrift, though generally fmaller, an 




covered with a rough brown bark : the wood is very clofe-grained, heavy, and hard like box ; 



the limbs moft commonly are crooked and grow irregular, but are thick cloathed with ftiff 



fmooth leaves of a Alining green. The flowers grow in bunches on the tops of the branches, 
to foot-ftalks three inches long ; they are white, ftained with a purple red, and confift of one 
leaf in form of a cup, divided at the verge into five fedions ; in the middle is a ftilus and ten 
amina, which, when the flower firft opens, appear lying clofe to the fides of the cup at equal 
diftances, their apices being lodged in ten little hollow cells, which being prominent on 





outfide appear as fo many little tubercles 






*7 



The flowers are fucceeded by fmall round capfulae, which, when ripe> open in five parts and 
difcharge their fmall duft-like feeds. 

^ — ■ 

This plant is a native of Carolina, Virginia, and other parts of the northern continent of 
America.. They ufually grow on rocks hanging over rivulets and running ftreams, and on the 



fides of barren hills, in 



a foil the moft 




en 




and leaft productive 




ever 



faw. 






Sheep 



are 



poi 



foned 





o 



wfi 




on its leaves ; though deer feed on them witl 



ha 



m 




all plants have their peculiar beaut 



would feem premmpt 



to aflig 



n to an 




an elegance beyond all others; yet, confidering the 



ftrudhir 



of th 



e 



flow 



er an 




the 




kn 



ow 



of 



th 



better claim 



be filled 



beautiful appearance of this whole fhrub, 

the moft elegant. 

After feveral unfuccefsful attempts to propagate it from feeds, I procured plants of it at 

feveral times from America, but with little better fuccefs, for they always dwindled, and pro- 

duced no bloflbms ; at length I procured fome plants of it from Pennfylvania, which climate 



being nearer to that of England than that from which mine 



fome bunch 



f blofTom 






were produced in July 
at Peckham. 



740 



and 



74 



> 



Fulham, and alfo in the garden of Mr. C 



51 



Akea Floridana^ quinque capfularis laurinis foliis 

feminibus coniferarum inftar alatis. 

The Loblolly Bay. 



j 



leviter crenatis 



9 



This is a tall and very 





ht tree 



wi 



th 



a 




lar pyramidal-fhaped head 



its leaves 



are like thofe of the common bay 





figure 

begir 

the greater part 
are monopetalou 



> 



but 




rrated, and of a moll: delightful fhin 




to produce white bloffoms in May, and continues bringing forth its flowers 




f the rummer 



thefl 



owers 



are fixed to foot-ftalks four or five inches 




? 



divided into five fegments, encompalTing a tuft of ftamina headed by y 



apices 



> 



thefe flowers in November are fucceeded 




a conic 




a 



hav 



divid 



inp- a divided canx ; 




the capfula when ripe opens 

feeds . 

This tree retains its leaves 

two feet deep in water ; the 
it. It grows in Carolina, 



and divides into five fections, difclofing many fmall half-winged 




the 



it grows 111 




et pla 



lv 



) 




frequently 



, r o 



od 



fomewhat foft, yet I have feen fome beautiful tables mad 




but 



r 



none or 



the more northern 



5 



O 



Gua 



28 



52. Guajacana. 



T> 



The Perfimmon-tree 



\, 



Thefe trees grow from twenty to thirty feet in height, with a trunk about ten or twelve * 
inches thick, and bear leaves like thofe of the pear-tree : the bloflbms appear in April, growing 
alon 




the fides of the branches on very fhort foot-ftalks ; they are monopetalous, fucculent, 
and of a green colour ; divided into four fegments, in the middle of which ftands the ovarium, 
which when grown to its full bignefs is of the fize and fhape of a large Orleans plum : as the 



fruit fwells 



> 




\ 



vh 



1C 




the four petals which compofed the flower fpread and become hard and dry. 
is of a tranfparent yellow colour, inclofeth four flat ftones : 



The 



th 



fruit of fome of 



th 



e 




will han 



trees ripen at different times from others ; fome in Auguft, others in November, and 

le leaves fall even till December, when having loft much of its watery parts, 




after 




it grows ftirivelled, candied, and very lufcious, refembling raifins of the fun ; and if fkilfully 
managed, would probably afford a fine rich fpirit. Great plenty of thefe trees grow in Caro- 
lina, Virginia, and moft of our northern colonies in America ; where their fruit is a feafonable 



fupport 
in emb: 



to birds, fquirrels, and oth 



j 



er 



animal 



The ftone 







two 



parts 



hibits the tree 



with the two feed lea 



and its ftem or trunk 



> 



more diftincl: manner than 






anv 

V 



I have ever met with. Thefe feeds will rife in the natural ground ; but the more expe 



ditious and certain method is, to raife them with the affiftance of a moderate hot bed 



53 



Frutex aquaticus, jioribus luteis, fruBu rotundo quinque capfulari. 




The height of this plant is ufually about twelve feet ; it rifes with many fmall ftems, irom 
which flioot forth fmaller twigs fet with fmall pointed' fmooth leaves. The flowers grow on 

■ 

the tops of the branches ; before they open are inclofed in fmall brown perianthia fet on fliort 
foot-ftalks ; are hexapetalous, and of a deep yellow colour. 

They grow in plafhes and frefh-water ponds, in the woods of Virginia and Carolina ; and 

February adorn the woods, when few other plants appear in bloflbm. 



in 



the 




g 



o 




The flowers are fucceede 



by fmall round 



pful 



ae, which in March and April divide into f( 



parts and difclofe their feeds, which being very fmall, are difperfed by the wind ; and when 



i 



carried into watery places, they fpring up very thick, and bloflbm in a fliort time. 






54. Pit la 



'r 






* 







54. Philadelphia s fiore albo major e inodoro. 



This is a frnall tree, rifmg to the height of about fixteen feet or upwards, with a {lender 



nk : the wood is hard and brittle. From the larger upright italics grow fmaller ones hori- 
itally and oppofite to each other, on which are placed the leaves by pairs: at the ends of 



gether on foot 



thefe fmaller italics come forth the flowers, growing ufually two and three t< 



italics of an inch long ; thefe flowers are compofed of four white petals, adorned in the middle 



th a tuft of thrummy ftamina and a triple ftilus, and crowned with yellow aoices. Thefe 




owers are fucceeded by roundifh mucronated capfulse, containing many fmall feeds in cell 
divided by thin membranes. 



s 



Thefe trees grow near the fources of rivers in Carolina, and have not been introduced 



to 



Engl and 



55. Gift us Virginiana^ Jlore & per icly mini 

The Upright Honey-fbckJc. 






This plant rifes ufually with two or three iliff ilraight items, which are fmall, except where 
the foil is very moiil and rich, where they grow to the fize of a walking-cane, and twelve or 
fixteen feet high, branching into many fmaller italks, with leaves alternately placed: at the 
ends of the ftalks are produced bunches of flowers refembling our common honey-fuckle, of 
a bluih-red colour and fragrant fmell. 

Thefe flowers are fucceeded by long pointed capfulae, containing innumerable very fmall 
feeds in cells divided by thin membranes. 

It is a native of Virginia and Carolina, but will endure our climate in the open air, having 
for many years paft produced its beautiful and fragrant bloilbms at the gardens of Mr. Peter 



Collinson at Peckham, and in fome other places. The raifing thefe plants from feeds has 




been often attempted without fuccefs ; therefore in order to procure fome, let them be planted 
rom out of the woods into a cafe or tub, with as much earth as will flick to their roots : 
water them well in their paflage. 

A warm afpecT:, with a loamy, ftrong, moiil foil, is what they like the beil. The white 
kind is moil fragrant, and grows the talleit. 




56. yafminum 



3° 



\ 



$6. yafminum luteum odor at um Virginianum^ fcandens y femper virens 



• 



The Yellow Jeflamin, 



This 




a 



nt grows ufually in moift places ; its branches being fupported by other trees and 



ihrub 



s 



) 



which it climbs. The leaves grow oppolite to each other from the joint 



of the 



ftalk 



s 



> 



whence like wife ihoot forth yellow tubulous flowers, the verges whereof are notched or 



divided into five fections. The feeds are flat and 



half-winged, containing an oblong 



pointed 



pjfula which, whe 
The flowers 



ripe, fplits up to the ftalk, and difcharg 




fm 




they are 

like thofe of the wall-flower, and diffufe their fmell to a great diftance 



Thefe plants are fcarce in Virginia, but are plentiful in Carolina, 



57 



Hamamelis. 






The ufual height of this plant is ten or twelve feet: they appear like nut-trees at a little 
diftance ; their leaves refembling thofe of the nut, or rather thofe of the alder-tree. The flower 



yellow, 



CO 



nfifti 



ing o 




a triangular involucrum, and a calix; divided by four fegments, 



is a pale 

from which proceed four flender petals about two inches long : it has alfo four ftamina and 

ffil 



a 



us 




ardly to be difeerned with the naked eye 




continuing long in bloft 
double a 



fets its fruit for th 



pfula, which when ri 



pe 




having a white fpot at their bigger ends ; each feed lies 
membrane, and they are ibmetimes tricapfular. 



flowers at Carolina in O&ober, and after 

rummer. The feed-veffel confifts of a 

half open, and difclofes two hard black fliining feeds, 

a thin 



diftincT: cell, feparated 




A pi 



of this kind was firft fent me 




Virg 



the year 1743 



It 



ed at Chrift 



mas, and was then full of bloffoms 



j 



1 

as it has annually been about the lame time ever 




it is 



hardy ihrub, and is oroof 




ft the fevereft cold 



The feeds may be raifed in the ope 



gr ou nd 




will lay twq winters therein before they appear 




are long befo 



th 




ftrike 



root 



by layi 



in 







58. Frutex 



3* 



a 



5 8 . Frutex corni foliis conjugates ; ftoribus inftar anemones ft e Hate, pet a Hi 



crafts, 



rigidiSy colore for dide rubente, cortice aromatico. 



This fhrub grows about ten or twelve feet high ; the leaves are fet oppofite to each other 

the ftar-anemony, . compofed of many ftiff copper 

r 

The fruit of this plant appeared a 



the flowers refemble in form thofe 




oloured petals, inclofing a tuft of fhort yellow ftarnina 



is 




prefented; but being unripe when difcovered, no more could be kno\ 



of 



the 



bark 



of 



is very aromatic. Thefe trees grow in the remote and hilly parts of Carolina in fprings 



nvers. 



fummer 



It is a very hardy plant, and yields a fucceiiion of ft 



th 




r eater part of the, 



Th 



plant may be increafed by layers 




* 



59 



The ChefnuMree 



The chefnut-trees 



differe 



America 



appearance fo very like thofe of Europe, that little or 



ice can be difcerned between them, except that the trees and nuts of the American 
chefnuts are neither fo large and fair as thofe of Europe, but the nuts are much fweeter. They 
abound moft in the hilly parts of the country, particularly on the Apalachian mountains, where 
they are more numerous than any other kind of tree. 



*6o. Plat anus Occidentalism 



The Weftern Plane-tree. 



« 



This tree is become a denifon of England, and in fome foils propagates its offspring 



t> 




• feed 



s and fuckers, as 



our 



afh 




elm 




they 




row to be lofty and ftately trees 



leaves are very broad, of a pleafant green, and have a white down on their back fides 



J theiy 
The 

■ 

feed-vefiels are globular, hanging fmgle and pendent : the trunks are large $ the bark fmootk 

that they produce a fine effect amongft 





and fo varie 





with whit 





the other trees 



* 



$*. Pefitfas 



3* 



*6i. Populus nigra folio maximo, gemmis b a If a mum odoratijfimum fundentibus 

The Poplar of Carolina. 



This tree is feldom found but near rivers, above the inhabited parts of the country : it grows 
very large and of a great height. Its leaves are large, fmooth oil one fide, and ferrated, or 



rather edged with fmall indentures ; and in fhape refemble thofe of the black poplar which 
Parkinson defcribes. The foot-ftalks are long, remarkably flat, and of a reddifh colour, as 
are the larger veins of the leaves. In April, at which time only I faw them, they had fried 
their feeds ; but by what remained I could perceive that they hang in clutters, and are covered 
with an odoriferous balfam, which ifliies out of and flicks to the large fwelling buds of this tree. 
It is the quickeft grower of any tree I know, and is eafily multiplied by cuttings. 



* 



62. Fraxinus Carolinenfis^ foliis anguflioribus utrinque acuminatis, pendulis 



Thefe trees are commonly of a mean height, and the leaves are pointed at both ends : the 
feeds are winged, and hang in clufters. They grow in low moift places. 



i 



* 



63. Acer Virginianum folio majore fubtus fupra viridi fplendente. 

The Red flowering Maple. 






Thefe trees grow to a confiderable height ; but their trunks are feldom very large. In Fe- 
bruary, before the leaves appear, its little red bloflbms open ; and continues in flower about 



hree wee 



ks, and are then fucceeded by the keys, which are alfo red, and with the flowers 
continue fix weeks ; adorning the woods earlier than moft other trees in Carolina and Virginia. 
They endure the air of our Englifh climate as well as their native one. 

The feeds of this tree being fucculent, retain their growing faculty but a fhort time ; there- 



fore, as the trees that are already in England do not produce perfect feeds, there is no other 



way of increafmg them but by laying, or poflibly by inarching on our native mapl 



* 



64. Acer Ajnerkanum^ &c. 



The American flowering Maple, with larger bunches of flowers. ' 



*6$. Acer 



33 




6 5 . Acer Maximum, foliis trifidis vel quinquefidis *, Virginianum 

The Afh-leaved Maple. 



66. Acer Carolinianum, foliis maximis fubtus argentis in lacinias profundiores 




magis 



acuminatis divifi. 



The leaves of this map! 



are as 



larg 



as thofe of the platanus occidentalis 



* 



67. CarpipinuS) Virginiana jlorefcens. 

The flowering Horn-beam. 



6 8 . Acacia Americana abru<e foliis, triacanthos capfuld ovali unicum femen 



claudente 



The Large thorned Acacia. 



This tree bears a fpreading head, and when full grown is of a great thicknefs : the trunk 
and bigger branches are fet with many large, long, fharp thorns, three of which ftand generally 
together. The feeds are a kind of bean, contained in a flat pod above a foot in length, and 
three in< 



hes broad, replete with a fweet 




u 




brew a palatable and wholfom 




thereof 



of a honey-like confiftence. The inhabitants 
; and it is not improbable, that the immenfe 



quantities of fuch rich mellifluous juice to be procured from thefe trees may hereafter be made 




f for many valuable purpofes. Thefe trees were unknow 



Virginia till about the year 




j 



near which time fome of them were brought from the banks 



o 




by the Cherokee Ind 



y 



and planted 



the 



the Millilippi river 



nation, diftant from Virg 




. 



dred miles 



y 



from whence they were introduced to Virg 




ieven hun 



the Indian traders of that 



country 
The 




valuable part of this tree is the fruit ; the wood being good for 1 



In Vir 





it is called the Honey Locuft. 

is raifed from feeds only, which fhould be brought over in thei 









K 



* 



69. Pfeudo 







34 







* 



69. Pfeudo-acacia 



The Locuft-tree of Virginia* 



The wood of tliis tree is efteemed in Virg 



1 account of its durablenefs, beyond that of 
country, being obliged to run up with all 
the expedition poilible fuch little houfes as might ferve them to dwell in, till they could find 



any 



othe 



When the Enelim firft fettled in that 




leifure to build larger and more convenient ones, they erected each of their little hovels on four 
only of thefe trees, pitched into the ground to fupport the four corners : many of thefe ports 

but likewife thoie above, ftill perfectly 



are yet Handing, and not only the parts under ground, 
found. This is a beautiful and very ufeful tree, yielding to none in the pleafing verdure of its 
leaves : of the wood of this tree the Virginian and other northern American Indians made their 
bows, it being when old very tough and pliant; yet the limbs and branches are brittle and 



liable to be fplit by winds, therefore not fo fit to be planted in open expofures. 



Itb 



ears 



papilionaceous flowers that 




an 




in 



clufters, and perfume 



the air with their fragrance. 



white 
The 



feeds remain hanging on the leaflefs trees till after Chriftmas ; and from them a fucceffion may 
eaiily be raifed. 



This 



* 

hardy, and is never affecte 





our iro 






ey are very numerous in moft of 



thern colonies, and of quick growth. Its ufefulnefs and eafy culture recommends it f< 



parks and fields, as well as avenues in gardens. 



1 



/ 



o . Ceraf fimilis^ arbufcula Mariana poedi folio y flore albo parvo racemofo. 

The cluftered Black Cherry. 



In the thick woods of Virginia and Carolina, wh 




th 



e 




trees moil abound, they feldom 



grow bigg 



than a man's leg ; but being removed to more open places, they become larg 



trees 



; fome of them being two feet in diameter with a fingle ftraight ftem. In March they 
produce pendulous bunches of white flowers, which are fucceeded by fmall cherries of a greenim 



call:, hanging in clufters of fix inche 



long in the manner of currants 



the fruit of fome of 



thefe 



trees are fweet and pleafant-tafted, others are bitter: they are approved for making the 



beft cherry-brandy of any other 



> 



and alfo for flocks to graft other cherr 



les 



ha 



a 



fine 



g 



> 



and is efteemed for its ufes in joinery and wainfcotting 



upon. 
They 



The wood 



are rai 



fed 



principally from their feeds, but will take root by laying. 



* 




1 



. Aqui- 



35 




* 



71. Aquifolium Virginianum 



The Holly of America. 



i * 

There appears no fpecific difference between the common American and the common Englifh 



Holly 



the leaves of the American being more or lefs prickly, and fome wholly without 



and 



the berries fomewhat lefs, and of 



brighte 



r 



red 



> 



but they differ mod in ftature: thofe of 



America, particularly in the upper parts of Virginia, are frequently forty and fometimes fifty 
feet high ; the trunk fourteen and eighteen inches diameter, and very erect. 






# 



72. yuniperus Virginiana. 



The Cedar of North America 



« 



Thefe trees are natives of the maritime parts of North America from the cape of Florida 
to the latitude of between forty and fifty degrees ; which extenfive tract for above a century 
paft has afforded a fufEcient fupply of this wood for building infinite numbers of fhips and 
floops, yet there ftill remain inexhauftible quantities fit for the fame purpofe ; for being of a 
quick growth they become good timber in twenty years. The inhabitants of Bermudas firft 



became 



famous for their cedar veflels, and long retained 



the 



putation of building them to 



fuch a degree, that in England cedar floops and L jrmudas floops were lynonymous terms ; and 



ffels 



America were 



bu 



Bermudas; whereas 




cedar 






mofr. people fuppofed that all the cedar 

that whole ifland contains not the hundredth part of the quantity of land that affor 

and confequently the number of fhips built on that little ifland is inconfiderable in comparifc 

to what the continent, 



y 



the Bahama, and 



oth 



er 1 



ifland 




s rurni 



ifh. 



It is 



true, the wood 



of tl 



le 



Bermudas cedar is preferred to that of the continent ; for as rocky foils produce the firmefl 



wood, the cedars of Bermudas receiving their nourifhment from folid 



o 



acq vi 1 



e a 




o 



fenefs 



s 




have whic 




g 



and folidity in the grain beyond what tho 

continent: however the different appearance of cedars (whic 

or feminal varieties) is no 



in the fandy loofc foil on the 






fuffi 




:ient reafbn for fuppo 
America I have frequently gathered fpecimens from a g 
fingle tree, 





or ten cau 



many different 



by diffe 



foils 




for 



in 



f thefe trees, and even from a 






that have agreed with all the different characters by which they have be 



dift 



guiflied in England. 




was 



told 




a 




rfon of probity and curiofity, that he carried fome 



berries 



36 






berries of the Bermudas cedar from thence, and raifed trees from them in Carolina, where the 
trees became more like in appearance to the Carolina cedar trees than to thofe of Bermudas • 
therefore it is not to be wondered that fuch-like changes appear in England, where the foil 
and climate differ vaftly from thofe parts of America where cedars grow. 

The feeds of this tree may be raifed in the common earth, giving them fome protection in 

it fhould be fharp ; though better fuccefs may be expected if fown in a hot bed 



the winter if 



particularly thofe from Bermudas and the more fbuthern parts of the continent 









* 



73. Cuprejfus Americana > fru&u minimo. 



The American Cyprefs. White Cedar. 



■ 

Sow the feeds of this tree in the fpring in boxes or pans of earth, for the convenience of 
removing them to a warm afpecl: when the rigour of the weather requires it, keeping them 
moderately moift till the next fpring ; then give them the gentle heat of a hot bed, and at 
their appearing above ground give them frequent waterings, and harden them gradually againft 

the cold mould prove exceffive, give them fome fmall protection, 



the 



a 



pproa 



c 




f winter 




and in the fpring plant them out with as much mould flicking to their roots as can be 



Except 



the Diffideus American cyprefs, this is the only fpecies of cyprefs that has been found in North 
America : it retains the leaves the year round. Thefe trees grow in Carolina, Virginia, Mary- 



land 



and Pennfylvania, and only in the 



upper parts o 




thofe countries: and is accounted 



excellent timber : they grow to large and lofty trees. 



t 






# 



74. Siltquaflrum Americanum. 



The Red Bud-tree. 



The principal difference between this and the Arbor Judae of Europe is, that the leaf of this 
is fharper-pointed, and the plant lefs capable of enduring cold than that of Europe. 






# 



75. Rhus 



37 



* 



75 



Rhus glabrum panicula fpeciofa cocci nea 



¥ 



This plant rifes to the height of fix or feven feet, with 



one and fometimes feveral ftraight 



ftems 




rom one 



root, and prod 



ices fpikes of pentapetalous white flowers at the ends of the 

■ 

branches. That which diftinguifhes this and gives it the preference to all the other fpecies of it 
is, the refplendence of its fear let panicles, the colour of which begins to appear in July with a 
tin&ure of yellow ; but as the fruit ripens the fcarlet heightens. The berries that compofe the 
ankles are vcllow, thick- fet with numerous filaments or fmall threads of a purple or fcarlet 
colour, which nothing can excel, efpecially when the fun fhines upon it. 





N. B. A warm fummer 



quifite to perfect its 



climate. They will rife from 



feed 



s 



? 



but are more eafily increafed by fuckers, which they are much inclined to produce 



\ 



% 



76. Pavia. 



The Scarlet flowering: Horfe-chefnut. 



t> 



> 



This tree grows uiually but to a fmall fize. 



77 



Mefpilus fpinofa. 
The Cockfpur Thorn, 



This tree grows uiually to the height of fixteen feet 



eigne or nxteen reet or more, wim a ltraignr item an 



with a ftraiiiht flem 




owers, which in Octobe 



regular-fhaped head. In the fpring it produces large clufters of fl 

fucceeded by bunches of a red fruit of the fize and form of thofe of the Italian Aze 



r a 




very proper to plant in parks, as well for its handfome appearance as 




le 




N. ,- 



n 







It is a hardy plant, and may be 



affords the deer, which delight to browfe on the 

from feeds with as much facility as the common hawthorn, and deferves to be 

ferable to others of this 



-i 






propag 



r% 



ted 



p re 




enus. 



The 



re are a 




r 



eat many different fpecies of the mefpili that have been introduced from No 



America ; a great variety of which is to be feen in the gardens of Mr. G 



different ecl 



our of their haws, and their other 



appearances 



> 



ad 




y at Fulham 
them to the 



The 



ufe of 



groves and wilderneffes : and as they are to be obtained here without procurbg them irom 



' America, that trouble may be omitted. 




# 



78. Peri 



38 






# 



78. Periclymenum Virginianum. 



The Scarlet Honey-fuckle. 



Thi 



s is a climbing plant, and retains its leaves all the winter : the 




owers are 



tubulous 




of a fcarlet colour. They are natives of Carolina, though they will endure our climate in a 



warm fituation. If they like their foil (in which they are very difficult) they produce fuch a 



profufion of flowers, that no wall-tree makes 




fplendid 



an appearance 



They 



are 



eafily 



increafed by laying ; but being fomewhat tenderer than the European kinds, they require a little 
more indulgence till the firfl: year after planting has pafled. 



% 



79 



PhafeoloideS) Caroliniana^ frutefcens, fcandens, foliis pinnatis^ floribus 

cceru/eis Jpicatis. 



The Kidney Bean-tree. 



This plant was introduced from Virginia, where, and in Carolina, its trailing branches are 



fupported by trees and fhrubs. In May and June it produces bunches of papilionaceous purple 
flowers, which are fucceeded by pods containing beans of a brown colour, 



of the fize, or rather 



lefs than horie-beans, which will fometimes ripen in England : they likewife in fome foils afford 
plenty of fuckers by which they may be propagated. 



* 



8 o . Arbor Virginian a citria vel limoni<e folio ^ Benzoinum fun dens. 

The Benjamin-tree. 



This is a fmall tree, or rather fhrub ; the leaves and bark aromatic : the fmall yellow flowers 

, are fucceeded bv fmall oval berries of a fcarlet colour, 





which are produced in the 

which when bruifed emit a fragrant fmell 




is called in Virginia the All-fpice-tree 






81. Alni 



f 



39 




81 



4 

AM folia Americana /errata y floribus pentapetalis a/bis, 

di/pojitis. 



in f pic am 



This Airub grows in moift pi 



5 



and fometimes in water, from which it rifes with 



flender ftems to the 





ht of ten or fourteen feet 




leaves are fomewhat 



alternately, ferrated 



> 



and 



in 



iliap 



■ 

c not unlike thofe of the white thorn 




four 



five 



from the ends of the branches lpikes of white flowers 
confifts of five petals and a tuft of fmall ftamina. The flowers are thick-fet 

are fucceeded by fmall, oval, pointed capfuke, < 




In J, 
hes long 



y 



many 
placed 
there fhoots 
each flower 
foot-ftalks a 



quarter 



of an inch long, and 



g many 



chaffy feeds. It endures the greateft cold of our winters ; increafes by laying, and fometimes 
produces fuckers. 



82. Frutex Virginianus trifolius ulmi famaris. 



flo 



This tree ufually grows to the height of twelve or fourteen feet, with a trunk as big a 

on long foot-ftalk 



leg, having a greenifli fmooth bark. Its leaves are trifoliate, and 



fet 



y 



the 



wers grow in fpiked bunche 



> 



many 



o 




and are fucceeded 



them together, each flower having four white petal 



j 




clufters of feeds hanging feparately by fliort pedicles, and covered with 



flat thin capfulae. They may be increafed by laying, but are long in ftrikino- root 



83. Steuartia* 



This fhrub rifes from the ground with feveral ftiff inflexible items to an ordinary height 



the 



are ferrated and grow alternately, refembling thofe of the Syringa 



The 




ower 



refembles that of a fingle rofe, confirming of five white 



from a pale green ovarium, furrounded by many purple ftamina with 



concave petals, with a pointel rifing 




ui 



ifli j 



apices 



It is 



re 



markable, that one particular petal in every flower is ftained with a faint greenifli yellow. The 



calix is divided into five fegments 



the 



pfula ha 



s a 



hairy 



ghnefs on the outfid 



of 



a 



form 



and when ripe fplits open, and difclofes five membranous ihells, every one of which 



contains a 





o 



blon 





rown 



fhini 



n 




feed 




received a plant of it from Virginia 



full 



bloffi 



om 



The Wood is fb very hard, that it feems to be not increafible by laying. 



84. 




a 



Ima 






V 

1 




4 o 




84. Palm a Brajilienjis prunifera folio 







\ 



fquammato. 



flabelli forma caudice 



The Palmeto-tree of Carolina. 









This is the only fp 
to grow without the 
which bein 



of that numerous and ufeful 



g 



of trees the Palm, that is found 



trap 



I obferved it as 




r north as the latitude of thirty 



deg 




within the climate from whence our American hardy trees have been introduced, 

■ 

I conceive it not improbable that this tree, by a little protection, may be brought to endure 

e : its vicinity with many hardy trees 



our 



imate and adorn our gardens with its ample folia 




which now are naturalized to England 



y 



would induce one to conclude that this tree alfo, as 



well 



thofi 



, may be able to bear the cold of our country ; but as all American trees of the 
fame latitude are not equally hard^ trial only can determine how far this tree is capable of 
abiding the open air 



of 



climate 



Was the lingular and fpecious appearance of thefe trees 




nown to the Curious, there would need no other excitement to the defire of procuring them, 
which with no great difficulty may be effected from Charles Town in South Carolina : . within 



fou 



r 



mile 



s of which is a little ifland, fix miles in circuit 



with Palmeto-trees of all dimenfi 



pals, and their fibres being clofely connected 



called Sullivan's Ifland, abounding 
The roots of thefe trees growing within a fmall com- 

fmall trees may be taken up with fufficient earth 



adhering to their roots, put fingly in tubs of earth, and fupported by a ftake or ftake 



The leaves are more than femicircular ; and fome of them fo broad, that they meafure fix 



feet diameter. Thefe trees are found in Carol 

well 

walls 




rom ten to fifty feet in height 



This 



3 



as 



as 




other kinds of Palms, has its peculiar ufes 



y 



particularly its leaves are ufed for the 



and 



■g 



of houfes; making hats, balket 



s, ropes 



with many other utenfil 



The 



berries are globular, as big as cherries, of a lufcious fweet tafte ; and is a great part of the food 



of the maritime Indian 



Sir Hans Sloane oblerves, that the name of Palm feems bell to agree with this kind 



> 



9 



■*■* 



becaufe the leaf refembles a hand more than any of the other forts. 



■ % 






* 



85. Celtis. 



4i 




* 



85. Celtis. 



The Lote, or Nettle-tree of America. 



Thefe trees are natives of Carolina and moft of the northern colonies in America, and are 
hardy enough to endure the climate of England ; they grow to a large fize, of a regular pyra- 

; the wood clofe-grained, and fit for many mechanical ufes. The leaves are iharp- 



Tiidal form 




ointed and notched ; the flowers are compofed of five very fmall white petals, encompafling 



many ftamina, and are fucceeded by Jingle round berries, which, if fown in a . ~w~, 



hot bed, will 



fomet 
before 



n 




in 



three 



or 



four 



mo 



nth 



s 



> 



but 



in 



the 



common 



th are ufually the fecond year 



they appear. Thefe trees naturally 




row in a moi 




foil 



> 




wh 



you 



require 



frequent watering: their branches alfo will ftrike root 




aying ; an 





h it is a tree of 



no lingular beauty, it may ferve to add to the variety of the foreft- trees which the new world 



affords. 














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